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C N T E N T S. 

Edwakh Lasker 

Field-Makshal Von Wiiaxcel 19 

The Crown Prince of I'rupria and Germany 3" 

VII. ' 
PniKrE Frf-debick Charles oi^ I'kussia ... 8 


King Albert op Saxony 100 

(Tas Late Kiko John of .Saxokt, 107—121. 

Field-Marshal General Herwaeth Von Bittenfeld 140 




Fielr-Mahshal Steinmktz , , . . 151 




General Vogel Von I-'alckenstkis .... 181 

General GObkn 192 

General Werder 203 

General Von der Tann 236 

General Hartmann 258 

General Alvenslebbn'II. ... . 266 

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General Hindersin ...... 271 

The Money Marshals 277 

Hevdt 278 


Campiiausen '286 

Bismarck's Stafv 294 



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The leader of the most important Bcction of the great 
National-Liberal party in the German Reichstag, 
upon whose decision seemed to hinge some time back 
the momentous question of a possible renewal of the 
old conflict between crown and parliament, so happily 
terminated on a former occasion by the indemnity 
vote given in 1866, occupies such a prominent 
position just now in German and, indeed, in European 
politics, that a few facts and notes anent the man 
and his career wUl not be out of place. 

There is no need here to discuss the great question 
of the German Army Bill. Such a discussion would 
lead tiB too far. Suffice it just to bint, that the 
motives which induced the German govemment to 
insist upon the project of law being carried intact as 
proposed, and as a permanent and not merely a 
biennial or quinquennial measure, lay much deeper 

Men who have made the 

than was apparent on the outside. Moltke had been 
compelled to put forward what has been termed the 
" French plea " aa the chief, if not the sole, cause of 
the necessity of the new Army Bill. He could not 
weU be expected, uuder the cireuniBtancea, to hint at 
possible hostile coalitions against the German empire. 
But the Emperor "William, the great chancellor, 
Moltke, and the other military advisers of the crown 
were painfully conscious of the probability, rather 
than the simple possibility, of certain by no meanf) 
distant contingencies that might be expected to try 
and test to the utmost stretch all the vigour and 
resources of the new empire. 

Had Bismarck been able to plead the cause of 
government personally before the Reichstag, there 
can barely be a doubt but he would have fully 
succeeded in carrying with him the votes of the 
National-Liberals and the more reasonable of the 
progressists. UnhappOy, the chancellor's illness had 
thrown the entire machinery out of gear. When 
Atlas bends, however slightly, the burthen he carries 
mnst necessarily begin to oscillate. 

It was not very surprising, then, that Lasker, 
who before 1866 was himself one of the most 
advanced and uncompromising progressists, should 
dislike to grant the government such an extensive 
vote of confidence as was implied in the Army Bill, 
especially in the absence of the all-conquering influ- 
ence of the sole snpreme chief of that government. 

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New Gennan Empire. 

The vile suggestion which has been thrown out in 
some quarters, that disappointed ambition had aome- 
thing to do with Lasker's reluctance to vote the Army 
Bill, must be repudiated with scorn. Lasker is the 
last man in the world to be guided by unworthy 
motiTes. The matter is happily settled now. There is 
reason to believe that the " septennial " compromise 
was first suggested to Bismarck by Lasker. 

It was in August, 1866, that the writer had the 
pleasure of meeting M. Lasker for the first time. It 
was at Baron KeudeU's office we met, where Professor 
Tellkampf, member of the Prussian House of Lords 
for the University of Breslau, kindly introduced 
me to a small, rather insignificant-looking gentle- 
man of unmistfikable Hebrew cast of countenance, 
with delicate features, fine, intelligent eyes, and 
high, thoughtM biow. This was Lasker. Al- 
though only in his thirty- seventh year at the time, 
his dark hair b^an to show slight tinges of grey. 
After listening for half an hour or so to the charms 
of his marvellous eloquence, there remained no longer 
the least trace of insignificance about the man in my 
eyea He stood fully revealed to me as a giant in 
intellect, power, and aspirationa 

Edward Lasker was bom on the I4th of October, 
1829, in the small township of Jarocin, near the 
Polish frontier. He was one of a rather numerous 
&mily. His father, a Hebrew merchant in a small, 
way of business, justly enjoyed a high reputation for 

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Men who have, made the 

integrity. His mother, an excellent woman, gifted 
with much natural shrewdness, bestowed the utmost 
care upon Uie moral training of her children. A 
young Hebrew teacher was engaged as house tutor 
to the children, to teach them the Hebrew language 
and the Talmud and other sacred books of the Jews. 

Little Edward made very rapid progress in his 
educational course. He was barely eight years old 
when he agreeably surprised his parents and his tutor 
with a reaUy meritorious Hebrew translation of one 
of Schiller's poems. 

In his fourteenth year he had the misfortune to 
lose his beloved mother. Soon after this sad loss 
his father sent him, together with his elder brother, to 
Breslau, to enter the gymnaaium there, where he was 
admitted to the fourth form. 

He here bestowed upon the acquisition of Latin 
and Greek the same untiring zeal and unwearying 
diligence with which he had studied Hebrew, and so 
rapid was his progress in learning that the fastest 
permitted routine advance from class to class was 
much too slow for him. So he left the gymnasium, 
resolved to prepare himself by private study for 
the severe examination to be passed by young men 
who wish to enter a Prussian university as students. 
Had he continued to pursue his career at the gym- 
nasium, it would have taken h im till the age of nine- 
teen before routine would have allowed him to show 
that he was ripe for the University. But the young 
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New Gei'man Empire. 

eothuaiaat passed brilliantly at the age of seventeen 
and a half, thus gaining a clear saving of eighteen 
precious months of the best part of his life. 

He had at first intended to study medicine, but 
his father for some reason objected, and, obedient to 
the paternal wish, he turned his chief attention to 
mathematics instead. This was in the year 1847. 

Like most young students of the period, Edward 
Lasker was an ardent and enthusiastic LiberaL He 
joined the Burschenschaft. The great events of 1848 
stirred him to his inmost depths. In October of 
that annus mirabilia he went to Vienna to hear 
the lectures of the famous Professor Endlicher. 
These were the sad times when the \inhappy 
city of Vienna was besieged by Windischgditz 
with overwhelming forces, and defended by a 
mere handful of brave men under Bem, Franck, 
Measenhauser, Robert Blum, Julius Fistbel, and a ty 
few more stanch champions of freedom. Edward 
Lasker threw himself heart and soul into the cause : 
he joined the famous academic legion, and narrowly 
escaped sharing the fate of Bobert Blum, who was 
basely and cowardly murdered by Windiachgratz 
on tho morning of the 9th of November, 1848. 

Lasker, with his clear head, soon understood that 
revolutionary risings, such as those of Berlin, Vienna, 
and other German cities, were not exactly calculated 
to promote the great cause of true liberty and rational 
progress. He withdrew from political agitation and 

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Men who have made tite 

devoted himself with all the enei^ of his character 
to the study of the law. In leas than eighteen months 
he was ready to pass his first examination as auscul- 
tator {the first step, by the by, in Bismarck's career), 
and less than two years after (in 1852) he brilliantly 
passed his final state examination. 

At this period of his career he had the grievous 
misfortune to lose his beloved and revered father. 
He Bought solace for his deep grief in foreign travel, 
and came to England. 

Here he was powerfully attracted by the social 
and political life of the nation. He found firmly 
established here that constitutional liberty which 
formed the object of his most ardent aspirations, and 
he resolved to make the institutions of this favoured 
land the subject of a searching study. He remained 
in England nearly three years and a half. It is not 
too much to say, that there is hardly another German 
to be found who can justly boast of anything even 
remotely approaching the profound and absolute 
knowledge of England and everything English which 
Edward Lasker possesses. 

In 1856 he returned to Prussia, and re-entered 
the service of the state. Of course he had to begin 
again on the lowest steps of the ladder. In 1858 
he obtained the appointment of assessor at the Berlin 
City Court, where the heaviest and most complicated 
ifiaira were constantly thrown on his shoulders, as 
his superior had aoon discovered his singular abilities 

New German Empire. 

and his marvellous working enei^ and endurance. 
He cheerfully bore the burthen of all these arduous 
labours, although bis office was a mere titular one 
in a pecuniary sense, and though he was quite aware 
of how little chance of promotion and lucrative em- 
ployment there was for him — the Jew Lasker. I 
shall have occasion to return to this point to show 
that there are still powerful social and religious 
prejudices of which the enlightened Germans will 
have to get rid of before they can justly claim to 
rank among the most civilized nations. 

When Prince William was named regent, and tie 
wretched rule of Frederick William IV. and Eliza- 
beth was thus brought to a close, Lasker again began 
to occupy himself earnestly with political questions. 
He wrote some of the most remarkable political 
papers of the day. In an article from his pen, which 
appeared in Oppenheim's Political and Literary 
Annual for the year 1861, under the title "The 
Powers of the Police and the Protection of the Law," 
he severely and caustically castigates the monstrous 
principle of the Prussian law of the 11th of May, 1842, 
which refers all complaints against police officers for 
abuse of power and excess of duty to the decision of 
the police authorities themselves whose officers are 
complained gainst ! 

" England," Lasker says in tiiis paper, " has attained 
to mighty power, not on account of her insular posi- 
tion, not by the strength of her wide commercial 

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Men who haw. made the 

connections ; not, as is sometimes said by those who 
do not think deeply upon the matter, de^ite of the 
narrow legality within which her movements are 
confined, but by the very force of that narrow 
legality, that absolute supremacy of the law. It 
is this absolute supremacy of the law which has 
made England great, and which has bestowed true 
freedom upon her. The certainty of finding protec- 
tion in the law of the land against all attempts to 
commit arbitrary acts inspires the English citizen 
with that nobis self-coDsciousness and self-reliance 
which more excites the envy of the sensible continental 
citizen than the wealth and the many other advan- 
tages possessed by England. This proud self-con- 
sciousness and self-reliance constitute the chief source 
of the Englishman's energy of thought and action, 
of his prosperity, of his active participation in the 
political life of the nation, of his cheerful willingness 
to bear his share of the national burthens, of his 
moderation, of the power of the state, and of the 
undisturbed order which reigns through the land." 

High praise this, indeed ; a pity the picture should 
be so glaringly overdrawn and overcoloured. There 
is, however, some excuse for Lasker*8 somewhat 
extravagant praise. At the time when he penned 
this marveUoua panegyric upon the supremacy of law 
and justice in England, and the total absence of all 
arbitrary will and power in this highly-fevoured 
country, the Tichbome trial and its sad lessons lay 

New German Empire. 

BtUl buried in the womb of the future. Now of 
course we know better. 

Lasker aoon became renowned as one of the most 
eminent political writers of the day. In every 
article from his pen it was clearly apparent that he 
had thoroughly maatered the subject he was writing 
upon. His clear exposition, lucid diction, and ner- 
vous style gave even to his lightest and most 
fugitive papers the character of political essays of 
the highest order. 

All this time the great writer coDtinued in his 
humble office of assessor, without pay, to the Berlin 
City Court. Being a man of singularly simple and 
frugal habits, he has always found it easy to defray 
the expenses of his living, kc, out of the proceeds 
of his literary labours and his chamber practice as a 
jurisconsult Had he ever felt disposed to turn his 
immense talents and knowledge and bis indefatigable 
working powers to profitable account in the manner 
of so many of his contemporaries, he might easily 
have acquired wealth. But Lasker is cast in an 
antique mould : the eager pursuit of wealth has 
no charms for him ; he freely gives his best services 
to his country and his fellow-men with rare disin- 

If I mistake not he is still a bachelor. He is of 
a most amiable temper and most affectionate dis- 
poaition ; children more especially he lovea dearly. 
I do not know whether he still continues to lodge 

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10 Alen who have made the 

with Ills old landlord and landlady, with whom he 
lived for years in the third story of a most un- 
pretending mansion, and whom he followed to 
even more modest quarters when the unconscionable 
rise of rents in Berlin compelled them to " move on ; " 
but I should believe ao. 

In 1862, if I mistake not, Lasker became a member 
of the Berlin Press Union, also of the great Berlin 
Workmen's Union, where he soon took a leading part 
as a public lecturer on the subjects most interesting 
to working men. 

When the great conflict between crown and parlia- 
ment was raging, Laaker treated the constitutional 
and budget questions in a series of papers, published 
iu the " German annuals," which excited universal 
attention and made the great Liberal and Progressist 
party anxious to secure the writer for one of their 
champions in parliament. 

This was, however, much more easily conceived 
to be a most desirable thing to do than to be 
carried into effect. There was a formidable obstacle 
in the path — the same obstacle, in fact, which opposed 
itself to Lasker 's promotion in the legal profession, of 
which he yet wsis universally admitted to be one of 
the brightest ornaments. As has already been men- 
tioned, Lasker is a Jew. 

Here in England, where we have only recently 
bestowed the second highest equity office iu the land 
upon a Jew gentleman, who, be it said without dis- 


New German Empire. 

par^ement of his legal attaiomeutB, caDuot possibly 
claim comparison with auch a giant of the law as 
Lasker is, we can barely conceive that Germany 
should still lag so far behind in true civilization and 
enlightenment as to be actually capable of tabooing 
for years one of her greatest men simply and solely 
because he claims descent from the ancient Chaldean 
warrior princes of Palestine, and holds fast by the 
faith of his fathers. 

There are a great many most excellent institutions 
and customs in Germany, more particularly in Prussia; 
but it must be confessed that there are also a great 
many glaring abuses and defects blotting the political 
and social system of the land; and this extremely 
stupid professed prejudice against Jews is assuredly 
one of the most glaring of these blots. 

When King Frederick William III. appealed to his 
people in 1813, his Jewish subjects obeyed the call 
with the same alacrity as the followers of Christ, and 
fought as bravely and as welL 

A few years after, in 1817, a Jew, bearing the 
unmistakable name of Joshua Aaron, who had greatly 
distinguished himself in the war of liberation, and who 
felt strong within him the fierce spirit of his illus- 
trious ancestors, presented himself before the exami- 
nation commission with a modest I'eqnest to allow 
him to pass bis examination for an officer's commission 
in the ixrmy. 

Licutcuaut-Uenorat von Holtzundorff, the president 


Men who have made the 

of the commission, stood literally aghast at the 
Jew's impertinence. He rushed incontinently into 
the king's presence to shock his majeHty'a reformed 
Christian ears witii the dire report. What 1 a Jew 
wanting to be an officer in his majesty's forces! 
The thought was madnesa The horrified monarch at 
once issued an order sternly prohibiting the children 
of Israel &om daring to repeat Joshua Aaron's bold 

This was some sixty years ago, you will per- 
haps say, and does not apply to the present time. 
Well, some fourteen years ago, if my memory serves 
me right, General Steinmetz, who is now a field- 
marshal, obtained a somewhat unenviable notoriety 
by issuing an order forbidding certain classes of men, 
Jews among the number, to apply for officers' com- 
missions in his division. I remember the case very 
well, because poor Otto Hagen, the then editor of 
the Insterburger Zeitung, got into sore trouble for 
publishing the obnoxious Order in his paper; for 
Steinmetz, having performed his good and heroic 
deed in secret, blushed to find it fame, and came 
down heavily upon the poor journalist for his 

At last, on the 3rd of July, 1869, a kind of Bill of 
Eights and removal of religious and other disabilities 
was passed, which, one would certainly have supposed, 
ought to have rendered impossible the repetition of 
such foolish tricks as those played by iSteinmetz 

New German Empire. 13 

and HoltzendurS But volenti nil difficile: when 
a fool has made up his foolish mind to perpe- 
trate an act of folly he is safe to succeed in his 

A Jewish gentleman, named Gottfried Hirsch, 
having duly passed his examination, entered the 
Prussian army in 1866 as a one-year volunteer. He 
was present at the battle of Sadowa and Chlum, 
where he distinguished himself by his cool bravery. 
He served at the time in the famous division of 
General Fransecky, to whose heroic endurance the 
success of the day was mainly due. Well, in 1870 
Gottfried Hirsch was called out again, and again - 
he fought bravely throughout the campaign, but 
especially in the desperate encounter before Belfort, 
where General Werder gained his well-earned laurels. 
Gottfried Hirsch aided might and main in achieving 
the great and glorious result. Indeed, so brilliantly 
did he distinguish himself that his captain and his 
major, both of them Christian gentlemen, warmly 
lecommended the brave sub-officer for a commission. 

But if they expected to see Gottfried Hirsch soon 
one of themselves, and if the man Gottfried Hirsch 
himself indulged in the flattering thought, they calcu- 
lated without their divisional commander, one Herr 
von DebschtttZi who felt as horrified as Holtzendorff 
had felt of old at the audacious presumption of a Jew 
wanting to be an ofl&cer I 

This excellent Herr von Debschlltz accordingly 

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14 Men who have made the 

sent back an indignant refusal to sanction the major's 
and the captain's recommendation, accompanied bj a 
remarkably stiff official intimation, that he must beg 
never to be troubled again with recommendations of 
Jewa for officers' commissions I 

So Gottfried Hirsch, who, to say the least of it, 
had certainly distinguished himself quite as much as 
the sublime Debschiitz, whose name most likely would 
never have been handed down to fame but for this 
curious little episode, had to take his leave in his 
old non-commissioned capacity, the stupid divisional 
commander being left untouched and unreproved, 
because poor old Hoon, with all his brilliant attain- 
ments, and despite his real greatness, happened to be 
just as brimful of foolish class prejudice as DebschUtz 
himself; and Bismarck, with a multitude of hornets 
swarming and buzzing about his ears, of course felt 
reluctant to put his fingers into another nest of the 
interesting insects. Well, luckily, Roon is gone at 
last, and Kamecke is said to be pretty iree &om his 
predecessor's foibles. 

Still, such men as Holtzendorff, Steinmetz, Deb- 
schUtz, Rood, and others of the same stamp, might 
plead inveterate class prejudice in extenuation of 
their ridiculous conduct. But what can possibly be 
urged in excuse of the so-called Ultra- Liberal electors 
in Prussia, who for a long time declined admitting the 
candidature of Edward Lasker, pleading that they 
must draw the line somewhere ; and that they 
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New German Empii'e. 

sincerely believed they ought to draw it at Jews I 
And, mark, not alone the provincial liberal con- 
stituencies acted upon this almost incredibly stupid 
notion, but the most highly intelligent first electoral 
district of BerUn, the capital of intelligence, where 
only the moat advanced champions of progress ever 
have a chance of election, repeatedly rejected Lasker 
the Jew for infinitely smaller men of the Christian 
persuasion. Yet many of the electors of this first 
district would be angry indeed if their freedom fit»m 
all religious prejudice and superstitious taint were 
called in question. 

So it was only in March, 1865, when Professor 
Temme resigned his seat in the Prussian parliament, 
that Edward Lasker was at last chosen to represent 
the fourth electoral district of Berlin. 

On the 27th of March, 1865, the newly elected 
deputy delivered his maiden speech. It was late in 
the afternoon, and the house was more than tired — in 
•fact, completely knocked up. ParUamentary practice 
had not then of course polished Lasker's organ and 
attuned it to the sensitive ears of his hearers ; there 
was, it is said, even a little of the Jew dialect in his 
enunciation. No wonder, then, that the maiden 
speech, like our own Disraeli's, turned out anything 
but a success. 

Yet, strange to say, within a few brief months after, 
Edward Lasker had overcome all drawbacks, and the 
members of the house were placed in a position to 

, I by Google 

16 Men who have made the 

freely and imgrudgingly admire the marrellously 
clear intellect and the amazing extent of knowledge 
of the new representative of the foarth electoral 
district of Berlin. Iiasker had of course joined 
the Progreaaists, and he fought his first great battles 
under the venerable Waldeck, the supreme leader of 
that fraction of the house. 

With his clear head and lucid understanding, 
Edward Lasker soon discovered that the Progressists, 
with all their sincere honesty of purpose and their 
undoubted high talents, were too closely wedded to 
party prejudices and crotchets ever to lay down a 
thoroughly intelligible and practical programme, and 
to carry it out So when, after the great events of 
1866, the first electoral district of Berlin sent him at 
last into the new parliament, he seceded from the 
Progressist fraction and became one of the chief 
founders and leaders of the National Liberal party, 
to which he continues to belong. 

His secession from the Frogreasists, and hia open 
declaration t^at the pasaing of the constitution of the 
North German Confederation was of paramount im- 
portance, and ought to override all party considera- 
tions, cost him the confidence of his constituents. 
However, this was a matter of very little importance 
to him, as there were now plenty of conatituenciea 
only too happy to secure the Jew Lasker for their 

From that time forward it may be truthfully said 
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New Oerman Empire. 

that no law of any importance, touching either the 
Pmaaian kingdom, the North German Confederar 
tiun, or the German empire, has been passed that 
does not bear the stamp of Lasker'a mind. The 
great tribune has, ever since 1866, honestly en- 
deavoured to give the chancellor of the North 
German Confederation and of the GermMi empire 
his most powerful support 

In the early part of last year Edward Laaker 
rendered one of the most signal services to his 
country by laying bare with a firm and unsparing 
hand the cancer of corruption in the Ministry of 
Commerce, that was threatening to eat into the 
very heart of the official machinery of the state in 
Fruesia. It would have been difficult indeed to 
find another man equally fit for the delicate task, 
and one so absolutely free from the remotest sus- 
picion of taint as Lasker may honestly claim to be. 

Although the Jew has been permitted at last to 
find his way into parliament, the door of official 
promotion is still kept jealously closed against him. 
Yet after the removal of Lippe from the Ministry 
of Justice, one would have thought Dr. Leonhardt, 
Lippe's successor, would have been proud to push 
a man like Laaker. But the great lawyer is still 
left standing on the lowest steps of the ladder. The 
city of Berlin, however, has bestowed upon him a 
somewhat remunerative appointment. The state 
would seem to find it difficult indeed to get rid of 

VOL. II. c ,_,,ibyGoogk' 

Men who have made the 

ita aoti-Jewiah prejudices. It is very true that the 
late Dr. Stahl, who was a Jew by birth, was per- 
mitted to attain high office in the Prussian state ; 
but then he had Manningized iiom the ancient faith, 
and had become a shining light of ultra-orthodox 
Prussian Protestantism of the most exclusive and 
intolerant description. So the instance does not 
apply to Lasker's case. 

' In 1871 an anecdote was told in Berlin, and was 
much commented upon at the time, as to how the 
chancellor on the occasion of one of his meetings 
with Lasker, having listened with rapt attention 
to one of the great parUamentarian's lucid disqui- 
sitions on a question of the day, had warmly shaken 
hands with him, sajring, " My dear Herr Lasker, de- 
cidedly we must be coUeagues one of these days." 
To which Lasker was reported to have replied, " How 
so, yo\ir highness ? Can it really be your intention 
to return once more to the noble profession of the 
law ? " What might have seemed a joke then, may, 
perchance, now ere long acquire the substantial pro- 
portions of a reality. It is well known that Bismarck 
is entirely free from the narrow prejudices of his class. 
Lasker certainly would make a very good minister of 
justice, or, better still, an excellent home secretary. 

In 1872, if my memory serves me right, the Law 
Faculty of the University of Leipzig bestowed the 
diploma of Honorary Doctor of Laws upon Edward 

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New German Empire. 


In the memoir of Biamarck, mention has been made 
of a certain illuminated transparent scroll, seen hy 
the writer in Elberfeld at the celebration of the 
first anniversary of Sedan, recording the rearing of 
the "noblest structore of the world's history," to 
wit — the new German empire. 

As the foimdation pillars of this noble edifice, the 
scroll recited — Civiem, education, industry, intelli- 
gence, order, faith, honour, loyalty, patriotism, dis- 
cipline, duty, endurance, fortitude, active obedience, 

It is as the typical representative — the very 
incarnation, in fact — of many of these high qualities 
that old Field-Marshal Wrangel finds a place assigned 
him here among the makers of the new German 

Whoever has attentively followed the victorious 
career of the Prussian armies from 1864 to 1871, and 
has intelligently endeavoured to trace the effects 

c 2 Google 

Men who hare made the 

back to their causes, cannot but have been struck 
with the large share which must be assigned in the 
latter to the ingrained stern discipline, the deep sense 
of duty, the tenacious endurance and fortitude in 
doing and suffering, the intelligent, active obedience 
(so very different from the mere stolid, passive 
submission to the word of command found in certain 
other continental armies), which have throughout 
characterized the Prussian soldier. 

Now these high qualities existed in the old Prussian 
army long before Boon and Prince William had con- 
ceived their reoi^anization plan, which was not 
indeed intended to create a new soldiering spirit ; but 
simply contemplated turning to the best and most 
efficient account the splendid material in that line 
already abundantly existing, and strenuously and 
incessantly cultivated many long years by the old 
school of officers dating from the great liberation war, 
of whom Field-Marshal Wrangel may fairly be taken 
as the prototype. 

This tough old soldier, Frederick Henry Ernest 
Coimt von Wrangel, was bom on the 13th of April, 
1 784, at Stettin, in Pomerania. His education was 
slightly defective, and although the popular notion 
is founded in error, that the field-marahal is even 
very indifferently up in High Dutch, and can express 
himself with proper fluency only in Pomeranian 
patois and in vernacular Berlin cockney, yet it is said 
to be very questionable whether he could ever at 
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New Gef-man Empire. 

any period of his career have passed the mildest 
competitive examination in any but the rudimentary 
branches of knowledge. 

He certainly forms a curious contrast with such 
men as Moltke, Rood, Goben, Voigts-Rhetz, Blu- 
menthal, Sperling, Zastrow, Fransecky, Podbielski, 
Wartenberg, HoUcben, and an almost innumerable 
host of others of the same high class of brilliant 

At the very early age of twelve be entered the 
military service of ius eountiy. However, the 
regiment of dragoons in which he served was only 
mobilised after the defeat of Jena, and he was full 
twenty-three years of age before he had the first 
opportunity afforded him of fleshing his maiden 
sword. Of this opportunity he availed himself to 
such excellent purpose in the campaign of 1807, more 
particularly in the fight at Heilsberg, that the king 
bestowed upon him the distiDguished military order 
pour le inirite. 

This order was originally created under the style 
and title of Ordre de la G&nirosite, by Mar- 
grave Frederick of Brandenburg, afterwards Elector 
(Frederick III.) and King of Prussia (Frederick I.). 
It was reorganized ia 1740 by King Frederick II., 
under the style and titie of Ordre pour le MSrite 
Civil el Militaire. Subsequently, in 1810, King 
Frederick William III. reorganized it anew as Ordre 
du Merits Militaire. Frederick William IV. added_^ 


Men who have made the 

a civil clasB to it for eminent artists and distinguished 
men of learning (Slst of May, 1842). 

After the peace of Tikit the dragoon regiment in 
which young Wrangel served was completely re- 
organized, or, more correctly speaking, two new 
regiments were formed out of its material. In 
one of these, the East Prussian Cuirassiers, Wrangel 
was appointed captain. 

In the campaign of 1813, Captain Wrangel did 
good service at Hainau, Liebertwolkwitz, and Leipzig, 
for which he was raised to the rank of major. 

In 1814 he first assisted in the blockade operations 
round Luxemburg, then took a promiuent share in 
the hard fighting in February. On the retreat to 
Etoges he was complimented by Blucher upon the 
excellent manner in which he had led his regiment 
and kept his men in hand. He gained honourable 
distinction also at Laon and Sezanne. 

In short, wherever he appeared in the field he 
showed himself a most valuable and efficient officer ; 
BO in April of the same year (1814) he was promoted 
to a Ueutenant-colonelcy, and made commander at the 
same time of the 2nd West Prussian Regiment of 

This new regiment took no part in the campaign of 
1815, which was always a very sore point with 
Wrangel, who used to declare, with comic indignation, 
that " old Blucher had no business to finish the matter 
right sUck off at BeUe Alliance (Waterloo), thereby 

New German Empire. 

depriving a poor fellow of all chance of coming in for 
his legitimate ahare of the elashing. He would like 
to know what old Marshal Forward would have 
Baid if he (Wraogel) had played him such a mean 
trick as diat. Why, he would have sworn like a 
trooper ; and so would he (Wrangel), only that 
he knew he must not, as it was against the rules 
of the service." 

But though Wrangel thus took no part in the 
camp^gn of 1815, he was promoted in the same year 
to the rank of full colonel. 

In 1821 he obtained the command of the 10th 
Cavalry Brigade, and two years after, ere he had 
reached his fortieth year, he was made major- 

In 1834 he was appointed commander of the 13th 
Division. The bead-quarters of this division was at 
MUnster, in Westphalia. 

Three years after the whole of Rhineland-Westphalia 
was plunged in sad rel^ous troubles ; for it is a 
grievouB error to suppose that there were no di£Bculties 
with the Ultramontane clergy in Prussia before the 
days of Bismarck. 

Even as early as 1837, the then Archbishop of 
Colc^e (Droste-Vischering) tried his hand at 
something like the same game Messieurs Forater, 
Krementz, Martin, Ledochowski, and Melchers are 
now trying their hardest to play against the imperial 
government, to the greatest possible damage to the 

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Men who have "made the 

state, and the deepest injury to that very religion in 
whose name and interest they profess to act. 

Frederick WUliam III. was always very stiff in 
matters touching the supremacy of the crown, and 
he speedily made the recalcitrant archiepiacopal 
dignitary feel that he was detenuined to submit to no 
imperium in im/perio, to no self -assumed license on 
the part of an antagonistic Roman estabhshment in 
Protestant Prussia. 

The Ultramontaniflts, who have never yet hesitated 
to act wherever practicable upon the beautiful Jesuit 
maxim, that where the end may seem good and 
desirable, all means conducive to that end are equally 
allowable, did their worst to support the archbishop's 
falling cause by the argument of religious disturbance 
and riot in Rhineland-Westphalia. 

General Wrangel's position at MUnater was one of 
very considerable difficulty, which required equally 
deUcate and energetic handling. He showed himself 
fully up to the occasion, however, and managed to 
keep the province under his especial guardianship in 
most excellent order. 

It is said that he sent for the dignitaries of the 
Roman Church in Westphalia, more especially in 
MUnster, and that he addressed these gentlemen in 
very good and unmistakably plain and intelligible 
High Dutch, telling them that he should hold them, 
collectively and individually, personally responsible for 
all popular disturbances that should require the strong 


New German Empire. 

hand to put them down. He was not going to shoot 
down an ignorant, priest-ezcited, and misguided fanat- 
ical mob in the Btreeta of Miinster, or elsewhere ; but 
he would, with inexorable severity and unwavering 
firmness, strike down the priestly plotters and wire- 
pullers who were directing the moves of the pawns 
in the game. He assured them that he would be as 
good as his word, and they wisely believing him, the 
dreaded troubles were nipped in the bud. 

It was partly to reward him for the signal services 
he had rendered the crown in this emergency that 
Wrangel was made lieutenant-general in 1838. 

The year after, he was appointed to the command of 
the Ist Army Corps at Konigsberg, in Prussia. Here 
his military bluntness, it would appear, led to a clash 
with some of the high authorities of the province, 
which induced the govemmeut to transfer him to the 
command of the 2nd Army Corps at his own native ' 
city of Stettin. 

In autonm, 1842, he commanded the evolutions of 
fifty-six squadrons of cavalry, with thirty-two guns, 
which took place near Berlin, before the late Emperor 
Kicholas of Russia, who personally expressed to the 
general his warmest approbation of the thorough 
efficiency of the troops under his command. Three 
years after King Frederick William TV. reviewed the 
2nd Army Corps under Wrangcl's command. He 
was so delighted with the splendid appearance of 
the corps, that he prosented Wrangol with the 


26 Men who have made the 

3rd Eegiment of CuirassierB as a mark of his royal 

At the outbreak of the war between Gennany and 
Denmark in 1848, General Wrangel was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the Prussian and German 
confederate forces, in which capacity he gained a 
victory over the Danes at Schleswig on the 23rd of 
April, 1848. He subsequently invaded Jutland, but 
the war was conducted languidly by Prussia, and the 
authorities in Berlin did everything to impede and 
thwart the military operations in the Elbe Duchies 
and in Jutland. So Wrangel was glad indeed when 
he was appointed commander-in-chief in the Marches 
in September, 1848. 

It had at that time become perfectly clear that 
the revolutionary party, who had so easily suc- 
ceeded in the spring of the year in overthrowing 
the old absolutist government, had pjayed their 
cards badly ever since, and had now finally lost 
the game ; and the only question was how to trium- 
phantly lead the inevitable reaction back to Berlin 
without incurring the risk of those deplorable scenes 
of bloodshed and cruel oppression which, unhappily, 
but too often attend " victories " of this nature. 

The task required a man of proved ener^ and 
good sense, with a certain amount of kindly feeling 
in him. 

Wrangel was selected for the post, and a better 
choice could hardly have been made. 


New Gei^man Empire. 

Having carefully made all necessary preparations, 
and collected a sufficient military force to make the 
utter futility of attempted resistance perfectly clear 
to the common sense of all but the most exalted of 
the revolutionary leaders, the general marched into 
Berlin on the 9th of November, 1848, proclaiming 
the state of siege. He speedily restored the authority 
of the government, without disgracing his name 
and fame by the establishment of murdering courts- 
martial and Satory shambles. 

For his eminent services on this critical occasion, 
King Frederick William IV. made him general of 
cavalry, and conferred upon him, in addition to his 
command in the Marches, also the command-in-chief 
of the 3rd Army Corps. 

In 1856 General Wrangel celebrated the sixtieth 
anniversary of his service in the Prussian army, on 
which occasion he was raised to the highest military 
rank of field-marshal (15th of August). The honour 
thus conferred was the more distinguished, as Field- 
Marshal Wrangel was then the only officer of that 
highest rank in the Prussian army (Prince Charles, 
the king's brother, was Master-General of the Ordnance, 
and Prince William, the present German emperor, 
was Colonel-General of Infantry, two high military 
charges held to rank equal with the field-marshalate). 

In 1864, when the war broke out between Austria 
and Prussia and Denmark, Wrangel, then eighty 
years old, took the command of the allied Prussian 

Men who have jnade the 

and Austrian forces. He retained it till after the 
storming of DUppel, when he asked to retire on 
account of hie great age. He had, in fact, originally 
accepted the proffered command with reluctance ; 
but these were the days when venerable age was 
still, occasionally at least, thought an indispensable 
condition in a commander of the forces in the field. 

The subjoined historic reminiscence may serve to 
show how far this strange notion was occasionally 
carried : — 

In 1813, when the question was mooted of ap- 
pointing General BlUcher to the command of the 
Silesian army, there were objections urged on the 
king from all sides against the proposed appointment, 
some declaring the general to be a man of over- 
sanguine disposition, and much given to boldness, 
bordering dangerously on temerity ; others that he 
was too old and too cautious (!), and too much given 
to act upon the advice of others. But the strangest 
objection urged against him certainly was, that he 
was too young, the general being about seventy-one 
at the time. 

Old Field-Marshal Mollendorf, a veteran then 
nigh upon ninety years old, felt particularly sore 
upon the excessive juvenility of General Blilcher. 
" Sir ! " he exclaimed to a high oflScer with whom he 
was discussing the appointment, then just completed, 
of the general to the command of the Silesian army — 
"Sirl the service is going to the dogs — to the dogs, 
, ii.;,Gooyk' 

New German Empire. 29 

sir, I say. What but defeat and disgrace can be 
expected in the field when they intrust high command 
to a mere youth like Blucher ? " 

Tt must be admitted, however, that in stiff old 
Mollendorf's notion General BlUcher had at the time 
only had twenty-six years' service in the army. 
Captain BlUcher had been passed over in a promo- 
tion by Frederick II., a younger and by no means 
a meritorious officer having, thanks to his powerful 
family influence, been made major over Blttcher's 
head. This had led to the fiery captain's resignation 
of his commission (in 1772) ; and it was only in 1787 
that Frederick II.'s successor, Frederick William II., 
succeeded in inducing BlUcher to re-enter the service 
as major. 

In the instance of the Dano-German war, moreover , 
Wrangel was the only officer whose appointment to 
the chief command would not be likely to rouse 
international jealousies and heariiburntngs between 
the allies. 

With his resignation of the command of the allied 
forces in the Elbe Duchies, Field-Marshal von 
Wrangel, though still nominally retaining his seat 
in the state council and the chief command in the 
Marches, with the govemorahip of Berlin, may be 
said to have retired fii^im the political and military 
stage, but certainly not from the busy scenes of active 
life, in which even now, with the snow of ninety 
winters upon his brow, he is found to the fore. 


30 Men who have made the 

In 1866, when the war between PruBsia and the 
AuBtro-Gennan coalition broke out, nothing would 
satisfy the old man but be must accompany the army 
to the field — as a volunteer ! 

The writer remembers having seen the green old 
man on one occasion at Nachod, in the military 
boEf>itaI, where he was dispensing kind words of 
83rmpathy and encoun^ment, and trifling money 
gifts to the unhappy wounded. 

The writer saw him again on the 20th of Septem- 
ber, the day of the triumphant entry of the Prussian 
army into Beriin, high on horse, firm in the saddle, 
riding with the nerve and skill of an accomplished 
young cavalier, and gallantly blowing kisses to every 
pretty girl his lively eyes could espy in his ride along 
the Linden. 

And five years after, in 1871, the well-nigh nona- 
genarian was still to the fore, on horseback, and still 
gallantly blowing kisses ! 

In January, 1872, the late Count Bemstorff, then 
German ambassador to the Court of St. James's, made 
a temporary stay at Berlin, where he had taken up 
his quarters at the H6tel Royal. Here the old 
field-marshal paid the count a friendly visit He 
came on foot It was one of the coldest winter 
days — something like twenty degrees of cold. Yet 
there the old man was in his thin military undress 
coat, without great-coat or wrapper about him, and 
with his spiked helmet, which must really beg^n 

New German Empire. 

to weigh heavy upon his head, tightly fixed on 
as usual 

The day after, he went to visit the crown prince, 
this time in an open caiiiage, in which he might be 
seen sitting stiff and grim, with the same scanty pro- 
tection against the cold as the day before, yet 
apparently not the least heeding the cutting, icy 
wind blowing right through him I 

His last public appearance was at the funeral of 
the late Queen Dowager Elizabeth, when he is said to 
have looked just the least little bit shaky, but for 
all that, likely to live long enough to add another 
instance in confutation of the anti-centenarian 

Field-Marshal Wrangel is Knight and Chancellor 
of the Order of the Black Eagle in briUiante, Knight 
of the Order of St. John, of the Ordre pour le MSrite, 
and a heap of others too numerous to mention ; Chief 
of the East Prussian Cuirassier Regiment, No. 3, and 
of the Brandenbui^ Fusilier Regiment, No. 35 ; pro- 
prietor of the Imperial and Eoyal Austrian 2nd 
Regiment of Dragoons, and of the Imperial Russian 
33rd Infantry Regiment He had only one son, 
Frederick, bom in 1821, who died in 1867, leaving 
an only son behind, Gustavus von Wrangel, bom 
the 21st of October, 1847, who is now an officer in 
the Prussian army. 

On the 13th of April last, Field-Marshal Wrangel 
celebrated his ninetieth birthday, when he is reported 


Men who have made the 

to have looked as green and as jolly as ever. The 
emperor and empress, the crown prince, and all the 
princes of the royal house, the ministers, &e., and 
the mnnicipal council of the city of Berlin sent 
their hearty congratulations to the veteran. Ob- 
serving that one of the members of the municipal 
council, who came with the burgomaster to present 
the congratulations of the city, did not look quite 
well, " My dear sir," said green old ninety, " you 
m\ist take care of yourself. I hope you will be in 
better trim when you are deputed again next year 
upon the same pleasant errand to me," — ^taking it 
as a matter of course that he would have to be con- 
gratulated upon his ninety -first birthday! Where 
does the old man intend to stop ? 

by Google 

New German Empire. 



The arduous and perilous match for the great 
" German Unity " stakes had to be played chiefly 
on the battle-field. At least two out of the three 
great military powers of Europe had to be over- 
thrown by Prussia and cleared off the ground ere 
the foundations of the new German empire could be 
securely laid. The accomplishment of this feat re- 
quired the highest military leadership. 

Kow Prussia had, indeed, an almost incalculable 
advant^e on her side in the stupendous struggles 
with Austria and France, in the possession of the 
greatest military strategist the world has ever yet 
seen. Still, this was not of itself sufficient to secure 
victory to her arms. War nowadays is a game of 
the nicest combination — every possible contingency 
had to be foreseen and provided for, and it is indis- 
pensable to be equally armed at all points. 

The supreme chief and leader of the host may be 
a strategist of transcendent genius, yet to secure the 

VOL. II. D Google 

Men toko have made the 

success of his plans he requires the support of a suf- 
ficient number of sub-leaders of the highest tactical 
ability. Failure on the part of even only one of the 
sub-leaders may seriously compromise, if not altogether 
imperil, the whole plan of campaign. 

The defeats of Oudinot and Ney at Grossbeeren 
and Dennewitz more than counterbalanced Napoleon's 
half-victories .of Bautzen and Liitzen — Macdonald's 
defeat at the Katzbach overthrew all the emperor's 
Ingenious combinations. Vandamme's blunder at 
Kulm made Napoleon lose all the prospective brilliant 
finiitfl of his great victory at Dresden over Schwarzen- 
berg, and Marmont and Macdonald's failure at 
Mockem decided the defeat of the French at Leipzig. 

Moltke has enjoyed, in his two great campaigns, 
the singular — one would almost be tempted to say f^e 
phenomenal — good luck of being supported through- 
out by military commanders of the highest ability, 
who always thoroughly understood their instractions, 
and knew how to carry them out most effectively. 
Indeed, with the single exception of Bonin's blunder- 
ing at Trautenau, the work intrusted to the tactical 
leaders of the Prussian and German host in the 
Austro- and Franco-German campaigns of 1866 and 
1870-71 was neatly and cleverly done throughout, 
though partial faUuro might perhaps be imputed alone 
to Herwarth von Bittenfeld and ManteuffeL The 
tactical leaders of the Prussian and German armies in 
the two great wars are therefore justly entitled to 


New Qerman Empire. 

claim a place among the men who have made the 
new German empire. The principal of these leaders 
are the Crown Prince of Prussia and Gennany, Prince, 
Frederick Charles, Kin g Albert of Saiony, General 
Vc^l von FalckenBtein, Field-Marshals Herwarth von 
Bittenfeld, Steinmetz, and Manteuffel, General von 
der Tann, and Generals von Goben and Werder. 

First and foremost among these ranks the Crown 
Prince of Prussia and Germany, not because he 
happens to be the heir apparent of the Emperor 
William, but simply because he is reaUy the greatest 
and most genial of the German generals — with the 
single exception, perhaps, of the great Vogel von 
Falckenstein, who affords a most rare combination of 
the highest strategic genius with the highest tactical 

The house of HohenzoUem is one of the oldest and 
most renowned houses in Europe. The HohenzoUems 
trace their origin back to the end of the eighth century, 
when, as family tradition avers, Count Thassilo, one 
of the Suabian magnates of the time, built the strong 
castle of Zoire, upon the summit of the Zolrenberg or 
Zollemberg, which lies about an English mile south 
of the present town of Hechingen. The ZoUemberg 
rises 2,663 feet above the level of the sea, and about 
900 feet above the level of the city of Hechingen. 
One tradition, as just now mentioned, attributes the 
building of the castle to Count Thassilo; another 
tradition, which may claim a safer foundation, says 

D 2 I by Google 

86 Men who have inade the 

the caatle waa erected in the eleventh century. The 
old chapel of St. Michael, which exists to the present 
day, forming part of tie caatle, belongs to the style of 
architecture of that century. In fact, it was in the 
eleventh century that the Counts of Zolre were first 
heard of in history. 

Burchard and Wenceslas of Zolre were slain in 
1061, in the troubles which distracted poor Germany 
during the minority of Henry IV. From Burchard 
descended Frederick I. of Zolre, who was the ancestor 
of the first Zollern Burgraves of NUraberg. Frederick 
III. of Zolre was one of the most intimate friends and 
councillors of the Emperor Barbarossa and Heniy VI. 
He erased Sophy of Eiitz, daughter of Conrad, last 
Burgrave of Numberg, of the Austrian family of 
Katz. Sophy brought her husband, besides the 
burgraveship, the rich allodial possessions of the Ratz 
&mily in Austria and in Franconia. As Burgrave of 
NUmberg this Frederick III. is called Frederick I. 
In the old documenta of the period he figures first 
as burgrave on the 8th of July, 1192. He left two 
sons, Frederick II. (1218) and Conrad I. (1230), who, 
according to the custom of these old times, enjoyed 
their paternal estates in common, and were both of 
them jointly Counts of Zolre and Burgraves of NUm- 
berg. It waa only eight years after Frederick's 
death, in 1226, that Conrad divided the estates with 
his nephew. 

There were now two distinct lines of Zollem, the 


New German Empire. 37 

Suabian and the Franconian. Conrad, of the Fraa- 
conian line, was the first ZoUeru who styled himself 
simply Burgrave of Ntimberg. His son, Frederick 
lU., married Elizabeth, one of the aJIodial heiresses 
of the last Count of Meran, who brought her husband 
the greater portion of the Meran estates, more particu- 
larly Baireuth, with its rich mines. 

From the earliest times of their known history the 
Zollems have been famous for their frugal lives and 
their wise economy. Frederick III. was therefore 
already possessed of much cash, which the proceed^ 
of the Baireuth mines increased considerably. He 
was mainly instrumental, in conjunction with Arch- 
bishop Werner of Mayence, in placing Rudolph 
of Hapaburg (Hawksburg) upon Jthe imperial 
throne of Germany (1273). He was also mainly 
instrumental in inflicting the crushing defeat of the 
Marchfield upon the Bohemians and their King 
Odoaker, or Ottokar (1278). He bore the banner 
of the empire in this battle. Some historians assert 
tliat the Emperor Rudolph had promised to bestow 
the Austrian Duchies upon him, which the death of 
Frederick of Austria, basely butchered, together with 
Conradin of Hohenstaufen, by tiie monster Charles 
of Anjou, had rendered vacant. 

However this may be, Rudolph thought better of 
it, and gave fair Austria, with Styria and Camiola, 
to bis own sons, indemnifying the buigrave for the 
disappointment of his brilliant hopes by bestowing 


Men who have made the 

upon him a considerable number of estates and 
privileges, to whicb that wise and far-seeing prince 
added many more estates, purchased with the fruits 
of his own and his ancestors' wise economy. He 
died iu 1297. His son and second successor, Frede- 
rick IV., continued the same policy. He cleverly 
used the necessities of the Emperors Albrecht, Henry 
Vn., and Louis the Bavarian, to increase his posses- 
sions and strengthen his inBuence. He bought 
Ansbach of Count CEttingen, and many other towns, 
castles, and estates. He was the most powerful 
djmast in Franconia. Frederick V., caUed the Con- 
queror, largely increased the possessions of the Fran- 
conian branch of the Hohenzollems, and prevailed 
at last upon the Emperor Charles IV. to raise him to 
the highest dignity of an hereditary prince of the 
empire. His son, Frederick VI., lent the Emperor 
Sigismund a large sum of money, for which the 
emperor gave him the Electorate of Brandenburg, 
at first in pledge (1411), but a few years after, in 
1415, upon a further advance of cash, in full legiti- 
mate possession. The purchase-money amounted alto- 
gether to 60,0002., a most moderate sum, even making 
the fullest allowance for the high value of money 
in the early part of the fifteenth century. As first 
Elector of Brandenburg of the house of Hohenzol- 
lem, Frederick VI., Burgrave of Niimberg, ranks as 
Frederick I. He was one of the shrewdest men of 
the age. Not content with his new acquisition, he 


New German Empire. 

aspired actually to acquire the Electorate of Saze in 
addition to it ; but bo soon as he found the matter 
more difficult and perilous than he had anticipated 
he wisely withdrew. After the death of the Emperor 
Sigismund he put himself forward as a candidate for 
the imperial throne, with very fair chances of success 
at first ; but when the Archbishop of Mayence began 
to exert his powerful influence in favour of Albrecht 
of Austria, the son-in-law of the late emperor, the 
Elector of Brandenburg gracefully abandoned his pre- 
tensions, and spent the money which he had intended 
to bestow in electoral manceuvres upon the acquisition 
of a number of additional estates. He died in 1440. 
Some eight years after his removal to the banks of 
the Spree, the old ancestral castle of the HohenzoUems 
came to grief It was taken on the 8th of May, 
1423, by the league of tiie Suabian cities, and was 
demolished, with the exception of the Chapd of St. 
Michael The castle was rebuilt some thirty years 
after, the foundation stone being laid by Mai^rave 
Albrecht of Brandenburg on the 24th of May, 1454. 
Being considered a point of the greatest strategic 
importance, it was repeatedly besieged and taken in 
the course of the Thirty Tears' War by the Swedes 
and by the Wiirtembergers, and was in the end 
demolished, with the exception of the chapeL King 
Frederick William IV., with his mediaeval predilec- 
tions, had the castle rebuilt in the style of tiie 
fourteenth century, llie famous architect Stiller 

,d by Google 

Men who have made the 

designed the plan of the building. It was begun 
in 1850, and completed iu 1855. It is a magnificent 
royal castle, with five towers, and contains, besides 
the restored old Catholic chapel, an elegant small 
Evangelical church. It was strongly fortified by 
General Prittnitz, and fiiUy armed in 1856. The 
notion of usmg it as a fortified place has, however, 
been abandoned since, and no garrison has ever been 
sent to it. 

Nearly all the successors of Frederick I. in the 
Electorate of Brandenburg were men of considerable 
ability. Even George WiUiam, the father and pre- 
decessor of the great elector, who is generally repre- 
sented by historians as a weak and vacillating prince, 
managed, with singular prudence and success, to keep 
his electorate comparatively free from the worst 
plagues and terrors of the Thirty Years' War, and to 
hold aloft the banner of the Beformation. All these 
princes added more or less to the possessions of the 
house, until the eleventh successor of the first Frede- 
rick (Frederick III. of Brandenburg) found himself 
actually powerful enough to place the royal crown of 
Prussia on his head. This was King Frederick I. of 
Prussia, twelfth Elector of Brandenburg of tlie 
Hohenzollem line. The Emperor William is his 
sixth successor. 

The Crown Prince is the eighteenth in the line of 
succession from the Elector Frederick I. Of the 
eighteen Hohenzollem princes who have precedeil 


New German Empire. 

him, five at least may be truly called great men, to 
wit, the first Frederick, the founder of the line, the 
great elector. King Frederick William I., King 
Frederick IL, and the Emperor William. To say, 
then, that the Crown Prince fairly promises to be 
the greatest of all HohenzoUems may seem extra- 
vagant praise. The brief sketch of the Crown 
Prince's past career, which it is intended to give 
here, will show, however, that the fjict simply is so. 

Frederick William Nicholas Charles, Crown Prince 
of the German Empire and of Prussia ; Field- 
Marehal-General, Inspector-General of the Fourth 
Inspection of the Army of the German Empire ; 
Field-Marshal-General in Russia; Chief of the Ist 
Grenadier Regiment Crown Prince, of the 5th West- 
phalian Infantry Regiment, and the 2nd Silesian 
Dragoons ; First Commander of the Ist (Berlin) 
Battalion of the Landwehr Guards; attached 
to the Ist Regiment of Foot Guai-ds, and to the 
2nd Regiment of Silesian Grenadiers ; Chief of the 
11th Regiment of Russian Hussars (Isum) ; pro- 
prietor of the Austrian Infantry Regiment, No, 20 ; 
Lord-Lieutenant of Pomcrania ; Doctor and Rector 
of the University of Konigsberg ; Grand Master 
of the Grand Lodge of Germany ; Knight Grand 
Cross of the Iron Cross of the high Military Ordre 
pour le MSrite, Ac, and member of the honourable 
craft of Typos, was born on the 18th of October, 
1831, at the new palace in Potsdam, He is the 


Men who have made the 

eldest and only son of the Emperor William and the 
Empress Marie Louise Augusta Catherina, one of the 
daughters of the late Grand Duke Charles Frederick 
of Saxe- Weimar. His only sister, Princess Louise 
Marie Elizabeth, bom the Sth of December, 1838, 
was married on the 20th of September, 1856, to 
Frederick William Louis, reigning Grand Duke of 
Baden. Like all the princes of the royal house of 
Hohenzollem, the young prince had to embrace the 
military career from his earliest boyhood. His uncle 
— the then Crown Prince, afterwards King Frederick 
William IV. — ^had been married since 1823. How- 
ever, as direct issue from this marriage seemed very 
doubtful, the young prince was most carefully 
educated, with a view to his ultimate accession to 
the throne. He had the best masters in every 
department of learning, and be amply requited their 
labour and care by the most unwearying diligence 
and industry. It is not too much to say that there 
is barely a branch of human lore in which the 
Crown Prince of Prussia does not excel History 
he has made his special study, and it may be 
fairly hoped that Germany and the world will one 
day reap the benefit of the lessons inculcated by 
that study. He is a doctor of the University of 
Konigsberg, of which university he is also rector. , 
History tells us that the Persian princes of old 
used to be taught some handicraft, so that they 
might not be quite helpless in the not altogether 


New German Empire. 

impossible event of their being driven into exile 
and misery. The royal house of HohenzoUem has 
always acted upon the same wise rule. At the 
age of fourteen, Prince Frederick William chose 
typography for his trade. He learned the business 
practically at Hfienel's Royal Printing Office in Berlin, 
and it is said that he is a first-rate compositor. 
Some years ago the writer met one of Hsenel's old 
hands at the office of the Elher/eldes Zeitung, who 
told him that he had had the distinguished honour 
of setting up a triglot book (German, Greek, and 
Latin) jointly with his royal highness, and that he 
had found it no easy task to hold hia own against 
his exalted competitor ; so that the Crown Prince 
of Prus^ wiU not find himself thrown helpless 
upon the world and without resources, even should 
the French communiata, the Marzes, Hasenklevers, 
Bebels, Mendes, &c., of Germany, and our own 
radical reformers ever succeed in sweeping away 
the old fabric of society. 

The young prince led a quiet, studious life, 
diligently preparing himself for his high vocation. 
His name has never figured in the Chronigue scan- 
daieuse. In &ct, except in court and military circles, 
it was hfudly ever prominently mentioned ; although 
aU who had the happiness of coming in contact 
with him spoke enthusiastically of the kindliness 
of his disposition, Ws fiiunk cordiality, his simple 
and unassuming manners, his vast and varied know- 


Men who have made the 

ledge, and the charm of his society and conver- 
sation. On the 28th of January, 1858, he married 
Victoria, Princess Royal of England — a happy union 
in more than one respect, but more particularly as 
forming a new fast bond between the two great 
Protestant powers of the world, and the two 
natural champions of the safe and gradual develop- 
ment of freedom of thought and conscience, and of 
political, social, and religious liberty and progress- 
The royal houses of England and of Prussia are 
the two oldest houses in Europe. Our own Victoria 
can trace her descent back to Egbert of Wessex, 
and through him to the old Anglo-Saxon princes. 
Prince Albert was also descended from a very 
ancient and most renowned house, and the Guelphs 
can go back to the Prankish Count Warin of 
Altorf, who flourished in the time of Charlemagne, 
and whose son Isenbrand had bestowed upon him 
by his contemporaries the, in our view perhaps, 
by no means flattering nickname of Whelp, or 
young hound, on account, it is said, of his quarrel- 
some and somewhat currish disposition. In those 
days, however, when might was right and force was 
law, the name might have been held in very different 
estimation. At aU events, Isenbrand of Altorf had 
his eldest son and heir christened Welp, or Welf 
(Guelph), who figures in history as the first of the 
name. We are justified, then, in saying that the 
royal houses of England and of Prussia are indeed 


New German Empire. 

the oldest houses in Europe. The descent claimed 
by the houses of Hapsburg and Lorraln from the 
Frankish Duke Eticho of Alsatia, who died about 
the year 690, is very doubtful at the best, and the 
Bourbons and Delmenhorst-Romauoffs date not very 
far back, comparatively. We may also take some 
pride and pleasure in the fact that the descendants 
of our own beloved Queeu will one day rule over the 
great German empire, and that the two countries, 
united by the strong and lasting bond of com- 
munity of religious faith and political interests, may 
be expected to march together for centuries to come 
at the head of Europe in the path of progress and 

In the year 1864 the Crown Prince had the first 
opportunity afforded him of gathering actual mili- 
tary experience on the battle-field. He had then 
reached the grade of lieutenant-general, and com- 
manded the first infantry division of the Guards. 
His position in the Dano-German war was, however, 
almost purely observant, the chief command being 
intrusted to Field-Marshal Wrangel, and subsequently, 
after the resignation of that commander, to the Crown 
Prince's cousin, Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia. 

It was two ye-ars after, in 1866, that the 
Crown Prince was permitted to appear on the field 
as a leader of armies, and to afford the world bril- 
liant proof of his high military genius. 

The Prusso-Gcrman war was certainly not of his 


Men uAo fiave made the 

Beeking, nor of hia liking. He looked upon that 
war aa a fratricidal contest, and there was a strong 
feeling m him of honourable repugnance to imbrue 
his hands in the blood of his German brethren. 
Moreover, it may be taken for granted that he was 
sincerely opposed at the time to Bismarck and his 
policy. The great minister had not yet been able 
to show to the world the trae side of his character, 
and to reveal the true tendency of his political ideas 
wishes, and aspirations. 

Heirs to the crown are proverbially apt to pro- 
fess unbounded liberalism, though, as a rule, their 
conduct after they have come to the throne is 
equally apt to give the lie to their former profes- 
sions. Now, indeed, the case is very different with 
the Imperial Crown Prince of Germany. Although 
he is in his forty-third year, it would be difficult 
indeed to say, fi^m any " professions " ever made by 
him, what hie true political creed may happen to be. 
He has always scrupulously abstained from all inter- 
ference in state matters — at all events, from all overt 
interference. His profound filial piety and his un- 
bounded reverence for his great father, who is known 
to be jealously tenacious of his supreme power, have 
always sufficed to suppress all outward manifestations 
at least of any antagonistic feeling he might harbour 
against that father's policy. So it would appear a 
very difficult question to decide whether the Crown 
Prince's political leanings and tendencies are liberal 

New German Empire. 47 

or otherwise. But it is known that in his religious 
belief he is an advanced member of the Reformed 
Church, of large and enlightened views on all 
questions of faith, and a most uncompromising foe 
equally to popery and Romish pretensions and 
superstitions, and to Muckerdom and " evangelical " 
bigotry, from which even men like Roon and the great 
Moltke are not absolutely free. The Crown Prince 
has not the slightest pietistic taint in his compo- 
^tion. He is also a freemason — not one who simply 
plays at freemasonry, but an earnest, sincere, and 
active brother of the craft He is Grand Master of 
the Prussian Lodges and of the Grand Land Lodge 
of Germany. The latter celebrated its first cen- 
tenary on the 24th of June, 1870, on which occasion 
the Crown Prince, in his capacity of master of the 
order and representative of the protector of the 
lodges — his father the king — delivered a remarkable 
address, to which we shall have occasion to recur 
more at length in the course of this memoir, when 
it will be clearly seen lliat the large views and 
enlightened sentiments of the speaker would be 
altogether incompatible with his holding narrow poli- 
tical ideas, and being chained to mediseval, illiberal, 
feudalist, and absolutiBt notions and principles. 

However, be this as it may, this much is certain, 
that the Crown Prince did not like the projected 
war against Austria and the German Confederation. 
The anecdote-mongers of the time made capital out 

■ Google 

48 Men who have made the 

of the prince's patent repugnance to the' war : they 
invented a cock-and-bull story about a Btormy 
encounter between the prince and Bismarck in 
presence of the king, in which the minister was 
stated to have actually advised his majesty to 
send his royal highness to the fortress of Spandau 1 
It need hardly be stated that there was not a 
semblance of foundation for this pretty little tale. 
The Crown Prince's honourable repugnance to the 
war never rose to such a height or intensity as the 
"story" would indicate. Any difference of opinion 
on his part anent the "propriety" of the intended 
war notwithstanding, the Crown Prince nobly did 
his duty to his king and country. There is also 
every reason to believe that he soon learned to 
appreciate more correctly the true position of affairs, 
and the honesty and patriotism of his father's great 
minister. It was even currently reported at the 
time, that the Crown Prince and Bismarck had had 
a meeting before the battle of Sadowa, at Miliutin, 
in Bohemia, where a perfect and cordial understand- 
ing was arrived at between the two eminent men. 
It may safely be averred that this understanding 
has never been disturbed since, and that the Crown 
Prince has not a more loyal friend than Bismarck, 
nor the great chancellor a more sincere admirer and 
well-wisher than his imperial and royal highness. 

The Austrian army, under the supreme command 

of Feldzeugmeister (Master- General) Benedek (at 

,_ ibyGoogIc 

New German Empire. 

least nominally, although hot in reality, for the 
emperor and his military cabinet were constantly 
interfering with the plana of the commander-iD- 
chief), consisted of the Ist, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 
and 10th corps, numbering altogether some 200,000 
men, with 762 gxins. Besides these forces, Benedek 
could draw reinforcements from the garrisons of 
Cracow, Olmiltz, Theresienstadt, Josephstadt, and 
Koniggratz, numbering altogether close upon 60,000 
men. And in the night of the 15th-16th of June 
the SazoD army of some 40,000 ezceUent troops, 
well found in every way and amply provided with 
artUlery, crossed the Saxon frontier into Bohemia 
and joined Beuedek's forces. Some 10,000 Austrions 
had been sent also to swell the hosts of the German 
Confederation, calculated in the rough at about 
100,000 men. 

Against this formidable hostUe array Baron 
Moltke, the chief of the Prussian staff, had formed 
four distinct armies, to wit, the so-called first army, 
under the command of "Prince Frederick Charles, 
consisting of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th corps of the 
Prussian army, and one cavalry corps ; the so-called 
second army, under the command of the Crown 
Prince, consisting of the Guards, and the 1st, 5th, 
and 6th corps of the army ; the army of the Elbe, 
under the command of General Herwarth von Bit- 
tenfeld, consisting of the 8th corps of the army, 
the let division of the 7th corps, and a reserve 

vol. n. E C.oogle 

50 Men who have made the 

corps of Landwehr ; and the army of the Main, 
under the command of lieiieral Vogel von Falckon- 
stein, consisting of the other division of the 7th 
corps, the Prussian garrisons withdrawn from May- 
ence and Rastatt, reservtis, and a variety of othL-r 

The Crown Prince was the youngest of the four 
chief commanders of the Prussian forces, his cousin 
Frederick Charles being his senior I)y three years. 
To him was intrusted the arduous task of leading 
his army through the so-called three gateways to 
Bohemia — the mountain defiles of Trautenau, 
Braunau, and Nachod. 

He collected his forces in a camp round the 
strong fortress of Neisse. On the 22nd of June 
this camp was broken up. About noon that day 
the writer had the plf'asure of listeuing to one of 
the prince's most telling simple speeches, which was 
delivered to the military and civil authorities of the 
fortress and city of Neisse in the courtyard of the 
War School Every word of that brief patriotic 
address went home to the hearts of the hearers, 

A series of elaborate manoeuvres, and marches 
and counter-marches, intended to puzzle and mis- 
lead the Austriaua in Bohemia, occupied the time 
from the 23rd to the 26th June. On the evening 
of that day the 6th corps, under General JIutius, 
had taken up its position about Habelschwerdt, in 
the Glatz district, which was then threatened by 

New Geiinan. Empire. 51 

the 2nd Austrian corps under Count Thun'a com- 
mand. The Ist corps, under General Bonin'a com- 
maad, waa ready to march into Bohemia through 
the Trautenau defile. The Guards, under the com- 
mand of Prince Augustus of Wurtemberg, through 
the Braunau Pass ; and the 5th corps, under the 
command of General Steinmetz, through the 
Nachod defile. The 10th Austrian under the 
command of General Gablentz, had been detached 
by Benedek to guard Trautenau ; the 6th corps, 
under the command of General Ramming, had 
been directed to SkaUtz to protect Nachod ; and 
the 8th corps, under the command of the Archduke 
Leopold, to Jaromierz, to support Ramming in case 
of need. Subsequently Benedek sent the 4th corps, 
under the command of General Festetics, to the 
same point. 

On the morning of the 27tli of June the Guards 
and the 1st and 5th corps eflfeeted their entry into 
Bohemia through the tliree passes of Braunau, 
Trautenau, and Nachod. 

The comparative failure of the Ist corps, under 
General Bonin, has been rehited in the memoir of 
Moltke, so we need not further recur to it here. 

The vanguard of the 5th corps, under the command 
of General T,6wenfeld, had hardly passed the narrow 
defile of Nachod into Bohemia when it found itself 
confronted by vastly superior forces forming part 
of the 6th Austrian corps under Ramming. A 


52 Men who have made the 

desperate struggle ensued. Two squadrons of Prussian 
cavalry had to encounter the fierce onset of the 
celebrated Windischgratz regiment of riders and of 
another cuirassier regim 'tit The two squadrons 
were ilriven back into the defile just at the very time 
when the Prussian artillery waa somewhat slowly 
and painfully wending its way through the pass. 

This was a most critical moment. The Austrians 
might have improved the advantage gained by them, 
and crushed the small force under Lowenfcld, in 
which case it might afterwards have been found 
impracticable for the 5th Prussian corps to force 
the pass. 

It is related that it was General Steinmetz's 
coolness and excellent tactical command which saved 
the day. 

But the writer heard another version of the afiair 
at the time. He was told by some officers that at 
the critical juncture when the Prussian cavalry had 
just been swept back into the defile, the Crown Prince, 
attended by General Blumenthal, his chief of the 
fitafi', arrived on the spot, and that his royal highness 
passed some severe strictures upon the curious tactics 
of blocking up a narrow mountain defile with artillery 
when it must seem of the utmost importance to push 
the infantry and cavalry through ; but his highness 
forbore adding another word the instant he waa in- 
formed that the general commanding the corps waa 
responsible for the arrangement. 


New German Empire. 

His royal liighness dismounted, clambered over the 
guns, made bis way to the frout, ordered the artillery 
back, pushed a few battalioos of infantry rapidly 
throQgh the cleared pass, and ordered them to occupy 
certain commanding knolls at the Bohemian outlet 
of the defile, with instructions to hold and defend 
these positions to the last extremity. Battalion after 
battalion of infantry was then marched through the 
pass in the moat beautiful order. Two regiments of 
cavalry followed, which made short work of the two 
Austrian cuirassier regiments, whose two standards 
were taken by the victorious Prussians. 

Up to this time there had been considerable ap- 
prehension in the Prussian army, lest their cavalry 
should not be able to hold its own against the Aus- 
trian crack riders. From the day of Naehod this 
fear was dissipated for ever. The Austrian light 
cavalry did not fare much better in subsequent en- 
counters with the Prussians, although a distinguished 
war correspondent of a leading English journal would 
persist in scoring victory after victory for their com- 
mander, Edelsheim — a pity only that every one of 
these " victories " should have eventuated in a more or 
less rapidly-accelerated retreat of the victorious forces. 

Bo soon as the Prussians had once secured a fair 
hold of the other side of the pass, the needle-gun 
began to tell fearfully upon the Austrians. But it 
was not this new formidable weapon alone which de- 
cided the fate of the day ; it was also the bayonet 


Men who have viade the 

The strong positions of the Austrians were carried 
one after another, and in the evening of the day 
Ramming found that his corps had sustained such 
fearful losses in the desperate struggle that he woTild 
be unable to hold Skalitz, the next station on the 
Austrian line of defence, unless very largely rein- 

The despatch to this effect, which he sent off in 
the evening to the Austrian headquarters, was inter- 
cepted by the Prussians. However, Archduke Leopold 
came up to Ramming's aid with the 8th Austrian 
corps from Jaromierz (subiurb of Josephstadt). The 
two corps combined took up strong positions around 
Skalitz, where they were attacked next day by the 
5th Prussian corps under the command of the 
Crown Prince and General Stcinmetz. 

That corps had suffered much the day before at 
Nachod, and the odda seemed largely in favour of the 
Austrians, who greatly outnumbered the Prussians, 
and had, besides, a large proportion of fresh troops 
to oppose to their harassed and jaded assailants. But 
the noble Poseners went into the fight undismayed ; 
they drove the Austrians from all their strong posi- 
tions, and carried ultimately the important stronghold 
of the railway station, and the town of Skalitz. On 
the evening of the 28th of June both the 6th and 
the 8th Austrian corps might be considered fully 
aceountod for. 

On the same day, the 28th of June, 1866, the 


New German Empire. 

Guards, under the command of Prince Augustus of 
Wurtemberg, went in for their innings, and a pretty 
game they played. Gablcntz, who had been victorious 
the day before against Bonin and the 1st Prussian 
coi-ps, had made his position at Trautenau as strong 
as circumstances would admit ; he had also taken up 
very strong positions at Alt-Rognitz, Neu-Rognitz, 
and Burgersdorf, 

When the Prussian Guards made their first onset 
they found sixty-four Austrian guns opposed to twelve 
of their own pieces, and they had the odds very much 
against them, too, in infantry and cavalry. But the 
men of this truly splendid corps carried everything 
before them in fine style. They took the positions of 
Burgersdorf and Alt-Rognitz, and finally carried 
Trautenau by storm, despite the most desperate 
resi.stancc of the enemy. 

Of the magnificent 10th corps, which Gablentz had 
led forth to battle on the morning of the 27th, to the 
number of nigh upon 50,000 men, there remained on 
the evening of the 28th only a mass of some 25,000 
men that could claim to he considered anything like a 
compact body. 

On the 29th of June the same irresistible Prussian 
Guards stormed Koniginhof {Dwor KrahtoS, Queen's 
Court), a most important position. This opened the 
way to a prosimate union of the second army, com- 
manded by the Crown Prince, with the first army and 
the Elbe army, under the command sevetally of Prince 


Men who have -niade the 

Frederick Charles and General Herwarth von Bittenfeld, 
which had entered Bohemia from the side of Saxony, 
and were fighting their way up to KoniggrStz. 

On the same 29th day of June the 5tli Prussian 
corps advanced from Skalitz upon SchweinschiLdel, 
where a fresh Austrian corps, under the command of 
tbs brave General Festetics, had taken up a strong 
position. This corps, the 4th of the Austrian army, 
shared the same fate with the 6tb, the 8th, and 
the 10th. It was badly beaten. 

The general commanding, Festetics, was so severely 
wounded in dne of his legs, that the limb had to be 
amputated. The operation had just been performed, 
and the nerves of the poor sufferer were still writhing 
with the pain of the saw slowly biting its way through 
the acutely sensitive boue membrane, when the general 
caught sight of his servant, a brave old Magyar 
Honved, whose eyes were suffused with tears, 
which the poor fellow tried to hide by turning his 
face the other way. "Ah, you rascal," said Festetics, 
with a good-humoured shake of bis finger at the old 
soldier, " ah, you pretend to weep, when your heart 
is actually leaping with joy at the happy thought that 
you will now have only one boot to clean for your 
maimed master." 

On the 30th of June the 6th Pruasian- corps, under 
the command of General Mutius, then one of the 
most distinguished officers in the Prussian service, and 
the heau idial of a pi'eux chevalier of ancient times, 

Digilized by Google 

New German Empire. 

came up to join the 5th corps at Gradlitz. Poor 
General Mutius, who a few days after did eminent 
service at Sadowa, was not permitted to see the end 
of this war. Soon after the battle of Koniggratz he 
waa carried off by an attack of cholera. 

The 6th, or Sileslau corps, which General Mutius 
commanded, was then, as it continues to the present 
day, one of the best in the Prussian army, and the 
two sub-commanders at the time. Generals Zastrow 
and Prondzynski, ranked even then already among 
the most accomplished officers in the service. 

On the same day that the union of the 5th and 6tb 
corps was effected, the dragoons of the Guard, sent 
on by Prince Frederick Charles to open communica- 
tion with the second army, came upon the right wing 
of that army, thus fuUy establishing the connection 
between the two hosts. 

Next day, the 1st of July, a section of the second 
army reached Miliutin, or Miletin, where the famous 
interview between the Crown Prince and Bismarck 
is said to have taken place in the night from the Ist 
to the 2nd of July. (This alleged meeting between 
Bismarck and the Crown Prince is looked upon by 
many as a mere historic fiction. The writer will not 
undertake to decide whether it really did take place 
or not. He can only say that at the time he heard 
the statement repeatedly upon good authority.) 

Benedek, half stunned by the great successes of the 
three Prussian armies, now fairly established in the 

, I by Google 

58 Men who have made the 

heart of Bohemia [the exploits of the first Prussian 
army and the Elbe army will be foimd recorded in 
the memoirs of Prince Frederick Charles and General 
Herwarth von Bittenfeld], resolved to concentrate the 
whole of his forces in a well-chosen position near 
Koniggratz, and leaning upon that strong fortress. 

Here the Austrian positions along the line of the 
Bistritz were attacked early in the morning of the 
3rd of July, at Sadowa, by Prince Frederick Charles, 
at Przira and Nechanitz, by General Herwarth von 

In the memoirs of these two commanders we shall 
have occasion to give a brief description of this part 
of the operations. Suffice it here to state, that the 
Elbe army made only slow progress on the left flank 
of the attack, and that Prince Frederick Charles 
fought desperately all tlie morning in the centre, 
with but indifferent success upon the whole. 

The prince had, in fact, occasion to wish by noon 
for the advent of the Crown Prince on the right 
flank, as ardently as Wellington wished for the 
promised arrival of his Prussian allies at Waterloo. 

It was, indeed, said at the time that Prince 
Frederick Charles had rashly begun his attack 
upon the Austrian positions in the centre two hours 
too soon. 

The Crown Prince, who had had to dispose first of 

the corps of Legeditch, in his advance over Kukua, 

and bad had to contend against formidable difficulties 

,_, ikGoo^^lc 

New Gei~man Empire. 59 

of the road, arriyed at last ou the right flank in the 
early part of the afteraoon. 

With the eagle eye of the bom commander in the 
field he took in the whole position at a glance. With 
prompt decision he ordered the 6 th corps under 
Mutiua to cross the Trotina brook, and two battalions 
of the Guard to storm the hill of Chlum, which his 
inborn military genius perceived to be the true key of 
Benedek's position, instead of Sadowa, which Prince 
Frederick Charles had been so fiercely assailing all the 

Mutius executed the order given him with brilliant 
success. He forced the passage of the Trotina, and 
compelled Benedek to change and shift the position 
of his right wing — in itself a difficult operation, and 
a hazardous proceeding in the &ce of a brave and 
skilful enemy. 

The Guards, on their part, carried Chlum in fine 
style, capturing some thirty Austrian pieces defending 
the position, and killing most of the gunners at their 
pieces. The two storming battalions lost fearfully. 
Out of some 1,600 men, 884 were left on their way 
up, killed or wounded. But the capture of Chlum de- 
cided the fortune of the day. 

The victorious Crown Prince was decorated on the 
battle-field by his enraptured father with the highest 
Prussian military order. Pour le MSrite. 

Had Herwarth von Btttenfeld with the Elbe army 
been as brilliantly successfiil as the Crown Prince, the 


Men wfio have viade the 

fate of Benedek's army had been sealed. The bulk of 
it could barely have escaped capture; a few straggling 
bands aloue might have found their way into Moravia. 
(It must once more be observed here that the fault 
was generally said at the time to have lain at the 
door of Frederick Charles, and not of Herwarth von 

Even as matters iictually stood, it is difficult to 
account for the extreme laxness and supineness of the 
Prussian pursuit of the defeated enemy. 

After Waterloo the Prussians drove the fugitive 
French before them in merciless, never-ceasing, never 
even relaxing, chase throughout the fearful night of 
the 18th-19th of June, hurling them in headlong 
flight over the bridge, and through the village of 
Genappe, through Quatre-Bras, and beyond Fraanes, 
and leaving them at last to regain the left bank of 
the Sambre only ae a thoroughly broken and dis- 
organized mob ; whereas, after Koniggratz, the 
defeated Austrians were almost tenderly left to a 
comparatively safe retreat. 

After Waterloo the British army was so thoroughly 
exhausted by its stupendous toils and sufferings 
during its Titanic struggle on that appalling field, 
that it waa physically incapacitated for further 
exertion in pursuit of the enemy. Jloreover, the 
Prussians were quite fresh, and the pursuit might 
well and safely be handed over to them. 

But at, although two out of the three 

New Qerman Empire. 

Prussian armies engaged had severally suffered in the 
long and arduous contest, and the third army, besides 
some most severe fighting, had done much hard 
marching that day, there surely remained some 
reserve force to push the victory achieved to its 
extremest consequences. 

Dis aliter visum, it would appear, however : and 
so Benedek was permitted to effect his retreat with 
comparative ease. 

Still the Austrian losses were enormous. Some 180 
guns fell into the hands of the victors, and what with 
killed, wounded, and prisoners, and the somewhat 
laige item of missing, the day of KOniggratz cost 
Benedek some 60,000 men. 

Altogether the seven days' campaign had knocked 
off more than one clear half of the powerful host 
which a few brief weeks before had so proudly taken 
the field. 

Benedek was truly a great general. It may even 
be left a moot question for future historians to discuss 
whether the Bohemian campaign would have eventu- 
ated as it did had the master-general been left per- 
fectly free to act as he listed, and had be not had, 
among other impediments, three archdukes thrown in 
his path as sub-commanders, not to mention Thun 
and Clam-GaUaa. 

His retreat, at least, after the battle, was masterly. 
He led the bulk of his forces in rapid marches side- 
ways to Olmutz, leaving only the 10th corps, under 


Men who have made the 

Gablentz ; the Saxons, under Crown Prince Albert ; 
three divisions of heavy cavah-y, and the light horse, 
under Edelaheim, to proceed in the direction of 

He expected to draw the whole Prussian army after 
him. He was grievously disappointed, however, in 
this expectation. Moltke simply directed the second 
army, under the Crown Prince, to follow Benedek, 
and pushed the first army, under Prince Frederick 
Charles, rapidly on to Brunu, and the Elbe army, 
under Herwarth von Bittenfeld, to Iglau, on the 
direct road to Vienna. 

Although the battle of Koniggi-atz had terminated 
the famous seven days' Bohemian campaign of 1866, 
the war continued a few weeks longer. 

General La Marmora lisul disloyally communicated 
to the French emperor the plan of campaign which 
had been recommended to Italy by the chief of the 
Prussian staff (through the Prussian ambassador to 
the Italian court) — a plan which, taken in connection 
with the Prussian convention with Klapka and other 
Hungarian leaders, must have totally destroyed the 
power of Austria had it been implicitly followed by 
the Italian chiefs. 

The immediate result of La Marmora's act 
had been, that Louis Napoleon had urgently advised 
the Emperor Francis Joseph to consent to the 
cession of Venetia. The emperor had taken the 
advice, and had thereby set free the Austrian army 

New German Em^nre. 63 

of the south, and its skilful commaniler, the victor 
of Custozza. 

The Archduke Albrecht, named by the emperor 
commander-in-chief of the whole of the Austrian 
forces, had given general Beuedek imperative orders 
to leave Olmutz with the troops under hia command, 
and endeavour to make his way to Florisdorf, to join 
there in the defence of the Austrian capital 

The Crown Prince had, as already stated, been 
sent, with the greater part of the second army, after 

The prince sent the cavalry division Hartmann and 
the infantry division Malotki to Prerau to cut of 
Benedek'a line of communication with Vienna, A 
severe fight ensued, on the 15tb July, at Toljitscliau, 
in which the Prussians, who had found before tbem 
the 8th Austrian corps, suffered severely, but de- 
feated the enemy with great loss. It was here that 
the 8th Cuirassiers took twenty Austrian gmis in fire. 

Large masses of troops {the 1st Austrian corps) 
being observed in the act of marching off, General 
Hartmann advanced at the head of eight squadrons 
to reconnoitre. It was here where tlie Prussian forces, 
having ventm-ed too far forward, ran considerable 
risk of being cut off, and where their retreat was 
so nobly covered by the regiment of hussars of the 

Benedek's line of march to Viemia was, however, 
cut off at another important point — Lundenburg — on 


64 Men wlw have made tlie 

the 16th of July, by Horn's division of the first 
army, under eommund of Prince Frederick Charlea. 
Benedek waa forced to cross over to the left bank 
of the river March, and to try to make good his 
retreat to Vienna over the lesser Carpathian moun- 
tains. This retreat the Austrian general effected 
successfully with consummate skill. 

Soon after, the armistice and peace preliminaries 
of Nikolsburg, followed by the treaty of Prague, put 
an end to the war, leaving the Crown Prince free 
to return once more to the enjoyment of his quiet 
and happy family life. 

On the 24th of June, 1870, the Grand Land Lodge 
of Germany celebrated its first centenary. On this 
occasion the Crown Prince, in his capacity of Grand 
Master of the order and representative of the 
protector of all Prussian lodges, his father the king, 
delivered a remarkable address to the brethren 
assembled, full of the noblest sentiments and the 
largest and most liberal views, and breathing 
throughout an exalted spirit of enlightenment. 

He spoke of the lodge in its connection with the 
Swedish Parent Lodge, from which it had sprung, 
and with the Universal Lodge of St. John. 

He pointed out to the brethren how, in the age of 
general progress in which we were living, it was 
indispensable that the venerable order should also 
advance beyond certain antiquated notions, and, more 
particularly, should not so persistently continue to 


New German F.mpii'e. 

cultivate mystery aa had been the case through the 

He invited the brethren to strive to the best of 
their power and ability to shed the rays of the 
higher intelligence and knowledge possessed by them 
over a wider field than certain antiquated narrow 
rules would now seem to allow. The entire tenor 
of the prince's speech showed, in fact, that liberty, 
progress, and enlightenment could have no warmer and 
no more powerful champion than his royal highness. 

A few weeks after the delivery of this address, 
the CVown Prince had to tear himself away once 
more from his household gods. France had rashly 
declared war against Qermany, and the prince had 
intrusted to him the chief command of one of the 
three great armies directed upon France by Moltke, 
and the leadership of the south German contingent 

The Crown Prince left Berlin on the 26th of July 
travelling by Leipzig, Mimich, Stuttgart, and Karl- 
sruhe to the head-quarters of the third army. The 
people received him everywhere with enthusiastic 
acclamations. The manliness of his character, his 
&ank cordiality, and his affable manner, quite firee 
from all studied or ostentatious condescension, gained 
him all hearts. The south German soldiers more 
particularly, whom he came to lead against the here- 
ditary enemy of the great Fatherland, were delighted 
with him, and felt proud to be cx>mmanded by the 
tme victor of Nachod, at least, and Chlum. 

VOL. II. ij-ibyGoogle 

Men who have made the 

On the 2nd of August three French divisions, under 
the personal eye of the Emperor Louis Napoleon, 
had made a fierce onset upon the town of Saar- 
brucken, the centre of the famous coal-basin, which, 
if all the truth of the matter were fully known, 
would have to be held chiefly responsible for the 
outbreak of the Franco-German war. At least there 
can hardly be a reasonable doubt that if Prussia 
had consented to the cession, or even to the sale, of 
these rich coal mines to France, the Hispano-Hohen- 
zoUem imbroglio might have been peaceably settled. 

The town was held by a few companies of the 
HohenzoUem Fusiliers, who fought so bravely, and 
with such consummate skill, that it took the as- 
sailants several hours to force this handful of gallant 
men to retreat at last 

The telegraph had played strange pranks with this 
very small military achievement, trumpeting it forth 
to the world as a most signal French success, the 
herald and pledge alike of many others to follow. 

On the 4th of August, a little after five o'clock in 
the morning, the Crown Prince of Prussia left Lan- 
dau, attended by his staff and suite. The army 
under his command had been directed to advance 
upon "Weissenburg. 

Weissenbui^ had always been held a point of 
considerable importance, and some of the fiercest 
fights had been fought for its possession in the 
French revolutionary war. 

Digilized by Google 

AVttf German Empire. 

On this occasion the city was occupied by the 
division of General Abel Douay, who had tlie reputa- 
tioD of being one of the best leaders of the French. 
The division belonged to the corps of Marshal 
M'Mahon, to whom two flukes, in the Crimea Mid at 
Magenta, had given an exaggerated reputation of 
high tactical skill. It numbered sixteen battalions 
of very excellent infantry, among them two battalions 
of Zouaves and one of Turcos, and had a numerous, 
powerful, and well-served artillery. 

The important eminence of the Gaisberg, which 
commands Weissenburg from tie south side, had 
been very strongly fortified, and was held by a large 
body of troops. 

A little after nine o'clock in the morning, the Crown 
Prince arrived on the heights at the east of Schweigen, 
just when the vanguard of the German division Both- 
mer were making their first attack upon the city. 

About half an hour or so later the l7th Infantry 
Brigade (of the famous 5th corps, that had fought 
80 well in 1866 at Nachod, Skalitz, Schweinschadel, 
&c.), having crossed the Lauter, made its appearance 
at St. Kemy and Wagh^usel, and proceeded to assault 
the heights opposite. 

Soon after, the 18th brigade of the same corps 
took its position on the right of the l7th brigade, 
attacked and carried Altenstadt, and, making its 
■way to the southern bank of the Lauter, prepared 
to attack the GaUberg. 

F 2 ■ -.t^^oogle 

Men who have made the 

The 9th division having thus crossed the Lauter, 
it became practicable to attack the town of Weissen- 
burg also fixim the soutb-east Two battalions of the 
57th regiment and one of the 58th were sent for- 
ward from Altenstadt for the purpose of this opera- 
tion. At twelve o'clock the town of Weissenburg 
was vigorously assailed by these troops and by 
Bothmer's division, and, after a desperate atruggle, 

Half an hour later, the 18th Infantry Brigade, of 
the 5th corps, and the 41st, of the 11th corps, 
delivered a fierce assault upon the Gaisberg, the 
King's Grenadier Regiment leading the van. 

The Germans suffered severely, more especially 
from the chassepot fire of the French tiraiUeurs, who 
occupied the vineyards all around. 

The superior carrying power of the chassepot, as 
compared with that of the needle-gun, was made 
clearly manifest here, whilst the much-vaunted mitrail- 
leuses were found wanting. 

The Prussian infantry, however, marched up the 
steep heigbt steadily and without flinching, and 
carried the fortified farm and the castle behind at 
the first onset, despite the desperate resistance 
opposed by the French. 

At one o'clock in the afternoon the Gaisberg 
had changed masters. Half an hour after, the 
Crown Prince rode up the heights to express 
to the noble infantry of the 5th and 11th corps 

New Gentian Empire. 

hig warmest acknowledgments of their undaunted 

The Gaisbei^ being the centre and key of the 
French position, after its plucky capture by the 
Gennans there was nothing left for the defeated 
corps to do but to effect its retreat in an orderly, 
manner. This the French succeeded in accomplish- 
ing, moving off in three columns in a south-westerly 
direction, pursued by the two cavalry regiments of 
the 5th and 10th divisions. 

General Douay had been killed in the fight. The 
loss of the French amounted to some 1,200 killed 
and wounded. The victorious Germans, whose losses 
in killed and wounded were even more consider- 
able (no wonder, considering the strength of the 
positions captured and the superiority of the chasse- 
pot over the needle-gun), captured some 1,000 un- 
wounded prisoners, with thirty officers, the French 
camp, baggage, kc, and one gun, taken by the 5th 
battalion of rifies. 

The capture of the Gaiabei^ and the lines of 
Weissenburg was the first real dee'd of arms in the 

The day after the battle the Crown Prince advanced 
to Sulz, to follow up his first success. 

Marshal M'Mahon with his entire corps, reinforced 
by divisions from De Failly and Canrobert's corps, 
had taken up an advantageous position all along the 
hilly ground surrounding the small town of Wiirth. 


Men w?u> have ■made the 

The village of Froschweiler formed the centre and 
key of the French position. " 

The Crown Prince had under his command the two 
Bavarian corps, the "Wurtemberg division, and the 
5th and 11th Prussian corps. The battle began at 
nine in the morning, and lasted till night, though 
Froschweiler had been carried before four o'clock in 
the afternoon, by a combined attack of the Bava- 
rians from the north, the PniBsians from tlie east 
and the west, and the Wurtembei^rs from the 

The French army was totally routed. It suffered 
enonnous losses in killed and wounded and war 
material Six thousand unwounded prisoners, two 
eagles, some thirty gtms, and six mitrailleuses fell 
into the hands of the victors. 

At Reichshofen the "Wurtemberg cavalry cut in 
upon the French line of retreat and inflicted further 
losses upon the fugitives, taking from them four guns, 
vast military stores, &c. 

The Germans also had suffered most severely, the 
French having defended their positions with des- 
perate bravcrj'. 

Prussians, Bavarians, and Wurtembergers alike had 
fought with the same steady determination. 

When the Crown Prince took occasion, after the 

victory, to express to the Bavarians his very particular 

satisfaction with their admirable conduct in the battle, 

a Bavarian sergeant told the prince it was all a 

,_ ibyGoogle 

Neu) German Empire. 

question of leadership. " Under your royal highness's 
command we can go anywhere and do anything," said 
the simple-minded soldier ; then added naively, " Had 
we been commanded by you in 1866, instead of by a 
muflf, we flhould have given those Prussians the 
greatest hiding they ever got ! " — a curious comment, 
apparently, upon the union of all Germany, just 
cemented on the battle-field. 

The Crown Prince pursued his victory with the 
most consummate sklLL He gave M'Mahon no 
breathing time. 

Besides, after the crushing defeat inflicted upon 
General Frossard's corps at Spicheren, on the day 
of the battle of Worth, by Generals Kameke and 
Goben, the French marshal had really no chance 
left him of making a successful stand anywhere on 
the Alsatian side of the Vosgcs. So there re- 
mained nothing for him to do but to save the 
remnant of his army by a rapid retreat, and to 
re-form it at the ChMona camp. 

In the great Bohemian campaign of 1866 the 
victories achieved by the Crown Prince were by 
many entirely placed to the credit of General 
Blumenthal, the Crown Prince's chief of the staff. 

Now there can be no doubt that General Blumen- 
thal ia one of the most highly accomplished 
military leaders of the day ; in fact, he ranks im- 
mediately after Moltke and Vogcl von Falekenstein, 
with such men as Voigts-Rhetz, Stiehle, Goben, and 

,_ ibyGoogle 

72 Men wJio have nutde the 

Werder. Notwithstaading, it would be gross in- 
juBtice to say that he had organized the Crown 
Prince's victories. 

Blumenthal himself never advanced any such 
pretension : he is a truly great man, who knows 
that he need not covet the pahn justly belonging 
to another. The writer has good reason to' know 
that General Blumenthal often spoke with enthu- 
^astic admiration of the high military genius 
displayed by his royal chief lq the Bohemian 

The general, who is a thorough soldier every 
inch of him, would occaaionally complain, indeed, 
of what he was pleased to call the Crown Prince's 
indolence in military pursuits. He even once wrote 
a letter in English to this effect to his wife, who 
is an English lady, which letter was xmfortunately 
intercepted by the Austrians; who were mean 
enough to publish a German translation of it. 

With a smaller man than the Crown Prince, this 
might have tended to produce a certain coldness 
between the chief of the army and the chief of 
the staff, Not so with the Crown Prince, who 
quietly admitted to Blumenthal that he was quite 
aware of his laxness and personal laziness in military 
matters; but he must beg the general's indulgence 
for his shortcomings in this respect, as he really 
could not help it He did not like the occupation 
sufficiently well to give his whole soul and mind 

New German Empire. 73 

to it. With this the matter was passed over, and 
the cordial friendship between the prince and the 
general suffered no interruption or diminution. 

In the French campaign General Blomenthal was 
again chief of the staff to the Crown Prince ; yet, 
with ail due respect to the high talents of the 
general, it certainly did not occur to anyone to 
attribute the organization of the victories of 
Weissenburg and Worth to the chief of the 
staff, at the expense of the genial leader of the 

The third German army followed in the wake 
of the retreating French, although it would appear 
that touch with the latter was soon lost. 

The small fortress of Lichtenberg, in the Vosges, 
was summoned to surrender by a corps of Wurtem- 
beigers on the 8th of August. Upon the command- 
ant's refusal a heavy destructive cannonade was opened 
upon the place. It capitulated two days after. 

Another of the small fortresses in the Vosges, 
Llitzelstein, or La Petite Pierre, was hastily aban- 
doned by the French, and occupied by troops of 
the 2nd Bavarian corps on the 9th of August. 
In such hut haste had the French evacuated the 
place, that large stores and much war material were 
found there by the conquerors. 

Nancy was abandoned by the French on the I2th of 
August, and soon after taken possession of by four 
German lancers. The small fortress of Marsal also 


Men who Juive made the 

waa speedily reduced by troops of the 2nd Bavarian 

On the 16th of August the Crown Prince took up 
his head-quarters at Nancy. Here he remained with 
his army, to cover the operations of the first and 
second German armies before Metz, and to be 
ready at hand in case of need. 

After the battle of Gravelotte, when Bazaine was 
securely shut up in Metz, the Crown Prince moved 
on again, westward, over Commercy, Bar-le-Duc, 
Point-du-Jour, and Vitry, upon Chdlons, which was 
reached on the 24th of August, when it was dLs- 
covered that the camp on the Mourmelon had been 
abandoned by the French, Vitry capitulated on the 
morniug of the 25th of August. 

It was speedUy ascertained that Marshal M'Mahon 
was not retreating upon the French capital, but was 
moving, at the head of 150,000 men, in the direc- 
tion of Rheims and Rethel, with the evident inten- 
tion of endeavouring, in co-operation with Bazaine 
and his host of 200,000 then shut up in Metz, to 
fall upon the Germans before that great fortress, and 
to crush them by the force of overwhelming numbers. 
The plan of this campaign had been bunglingly 
conceived in Paris by Palikao (Montauban). Its 
execution was attempted still more bunglingly by 
the present chief of the French government 

The Crown Prince retraced his steps with the 
utmost rapidity, and cffcctc<l his junction with the 


New German Empire. - 

newly-formed army of the Meuse, under the com- 
mand of the Saxon Crown Prince Albert, the 
present King of Saxony, in ample time to con- 
tribute to the victory of Beaumont, and share in 
the " crowning mercy " of Sedan. 

The future impartial historian alone, who can 
keep his pen equally free from personal predilec- 
tion as &om prejudice, will be able to assign to 
the memory of the Crown Prince of Prussia the due 
share of glory that ought to fell to his name in 
connection with this most marvellous achievement. 
Here we need say simply, that the Crown Prince's 
excellent tactics contributed largely to crown Moltke's 
splendid strategy with the fullest success. 

M'Mahon had set out from the camp of ChAlons 
with a fine army of 150,000 men. Of all this 
formidable host there escaped only a small fraction 
of some 3,000 across the Belgian frontier. About 
115,000 men, including about 4,000 oflScers, fell 
into the conquerors' hands as prisoners of war in the 
battles of Beaumont and Sedan, and by the sub- 
sequent capitulation. Fourteen thousand wounded 
were also found in Sedan. The rest lay stretched 
stiff and cold on the bloody fields of Beaumont 
and Sedan, and at Nouart and Mousson. 

From Sedan the united victorious German armies 
(the 3rd under command of the Crown Prince 
of Prussia, and the army of the Meuse under 
command of the Crown Prince of Saxony) moved 


Men who have made the 

on in the direction of Paris, under the personal 
leiidership of King WUliam, who established his 
head-quarters in the old French coronation city of 
Rheima on the 5th of September. 

It is an incalculable blessing for Germany and 
Europe that the Crown Princ2 of Prussia — as has 
been more than once before observed in the course 
of this memoir — is not a soldier tlirough and through, 
and from natural inclination. 

He goes to the field of battle as a matter of 
duty. Under the conscious inspiration of his deep 
sense of duty, he, indeed, gives the widest and fullest 
scope and play to hia liigh military genius ; but the 
fight once done, he is not the man to revel in the 
intoxication of victory. He ahudderingly beholds 
the stem realities of the unspeakable miseries of 
war, and instead of insatiably striving, like a 
Napoleon Bonaparte, to add fresh leaflets to the 
laurel crown encircling the victor's brow, he bethinks 
him only of how to soften the miseries, how to 
assuage the sufieriuga inflicted by the awful deity 
whose dread rites he has just been solemnizing as 

So, no wonder that we should fijid the Crown 
Prince of Prussia, five short days after the storming 
of Sedan, issuing a pleading and warm appeal to 
every German man and woman in the great Father- 
land to put their shoulders energetically to the 
wheel to establish a general fund for the relief of 

■ Google 

New German Empire. 77 

invalided warriors and' their families — an appeal so 
gloriously seconded by his august wife, our own 
Princess Koyal. 

On the I7th of September the vanguard of the 
Germans reached Paris. With the same strange, 
wilful blindness to the most patent facts which 
characterized the Auatrians in their Bohemian cam- 
paign of 1866, when, to give one instance out of 
many, they ruthlessly destroyed a wooden bridge 
leading over the Elbe at Kukua, where the width 
of the river is not quite that of a moderately- 
sized brook, and the depth about knee-deep, . the 
French had sternly sacrificed all bridges, viaducts, 
and other facilities of communication on roads and 
railways, without being able to impose thereby one 
single hour's delay upon the irresistible advance of 
the foe. 

On this day (1 7th of September) a portion of the 
l7th brigade overthrew several battalions of the 
French to the north of the Brevannes forest ; on 
the day after the French were driven back again 
at Bic^tre ; and on the 19th the Crown Prince 
effected the inclosing of Paris all along the line 
from Versailles to Vincennes, having on the after- 
noon of that day beaten off three divisions of General 
Vinoy's army, which had taken up a strong position 
on the heights of Sceaux. 

The 2nd Bavarian corps and the 5th Prussian 

corps were engaged in this feat of arras, under the 


^fnl whs hnm made the 

personal command of the Crown Prince. The French 
suffered heavy loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners, 
besides leaving seven guns in the hands of the con- 
querors. General Vinoy was the French commander 
on the occasion. 

From this day, the 19th of September, forward to 
the termination of the siege of Paris, the Crown 
Prince held the line Bougival, Sevres, Meudon, 
Bourg I'Hay, Chevilly, Thiais, Choisy-le-Roi, and 
Bonnevil. He again in person directed the fight 
against Vinoy on the 30th of September, when the 
French were driven back with heavy loss. 
' On the 27th of October Metz capitulated to the 
besieging German army under Prince Frederick 
Charles. The momentous importance of this event, 
taken in connection with the glorious days of 
Weissenburg, Worth, and Sedan, induced King 
William to depart, for the first time in the his- 
tory of the HohenzoUerns, from the old traditionary 
custom of the family, which excluded princes of 
the reigning house fit)m attaining the highest mili- 
tary grade. 

King William himself, when Prince of Prussia, 
had only held the position of Colonel-General of 
infantry, whilst his brother. Prince Charles, had 
been made Master-General of the Ordnance, both 
with the rank of field-marshal, indeed, but without 
the full title. Now, the king resolved for the first 
time to raise the Crown Prince and Prince Frederick 

,,_,:! by Google 

Ne^l} Gentvxn Empire. 

Charlea to the full rank and title of general field- 
marshals in the army. 

In the several desperate attempts made by 
the French in the course of November and 
December, 1870, and more particularly on the 19th 
of January, 1871, the Crown Prince firmly main- 
t^ed the position before Paris intrusted to his 

The day before the last efibrt of General Trochu 
to break through the iron lines which the Germans 
had drawn round Paris, to wit, the 18th of January, 
1871, his majesty King William of Prussia, having 
on that day assumed the imperial crown and sceptre 
of the ancient German empire, issued a decree raising 
the Crown Prince of Prussia to the high state of 
Crown Prince of the German empire. 

After the happy conclusion of peace, the Crown 
Prince, always eager to bid adieu to war and strife, 
left Versailles on the 7th of March, 1871. On the 
11th of March he passed through Rouen, on the I4th 
through Nancy, and so on, in a veritable blaze of 
triumph, which his unassuming and unpretending 
modesty would gladly have eschewed, to the - 
Prussian capital, where his happy royal father 
bestowed upon him, on the 22nd of March, the 
high insignia of Grand Cross of the Order of the 
Iron Cross. 

On the 16th of June he took the lion's share of 
popular enthusiasm and admiration in the triumphal 


Men who have made the 

entry into Berlin, and, exactly one month after, in 
the triumphal entry into Munich. 

Since that time the imperial and royal Crown 
Prince of Germany and Prussia has once more — 
and how gladly 1 — effaced himself, as it were, from 
the great political stage, and taken a happy refuge 
from its troubles and turmoil in the bosom of his 
family, where his wife and his children are all 
the world to him. 

There is no need to dwell here upon the deep 
devotion which all under his genial command have 
ever borne him, and how the hearty " Good morn- 
ing," with which he likes to greet -the assembled 
regiments, finds an equally hearty responsive echo 
in all ranks of the great host. Nor need we ex- 
patiate upon the affectionate love felt for him 
everywhere by the people of Germany. The pro- 
found, racking anxiety with which his illness last 
year was watched throughout the land afforded 
ample proof of this. 

In the love and affection of the people, his wife, 
our own Princess Boyal, shares most fuUy and 
most deservedly. This august lady, unassuming 
and unpretending, like her noble husband, delights 
only in setting a bright example to all the women 
in the land, in her household, in her nursery, in 
the schoolroom of her children, and in that glorious 
little model farm of hers and her husband's at 
Bomstadt, near Potsdam, a delight in which her 

New Oerman Empire. 81 

imperial and royal higbneBS has inherited from 
her great father, the late Prince Consort. The 
augoBt lady haa also given to Berlin a museum 
of art, in inutation and emtilation of the South 
Kensington Museum in London ; and she is always 
striving in every way to improve the condition of 
the poor and suffering of her own sex, and to - 
devise' new means and channels of female occupa- 

Need any excuse be pleaded here for thus intro- 
ducing the name and person of the Crown Princess 
in this memoir ? May it not be honestly affirmed, 
indeed, that her beneficent influence has also largely 
contributed to the making of the new German 


Men who have made the 



Pbincg Fredebice Chaales is unquestionably a 
great military commander, who deserves to be placed 
high among the tactical leaders who have so largely 
contributed to make the new German empire. But 
to claim for him, as some military writers have 
attempted to do, the first and foremost rank among 
the successful commanders in the wars of 1864, 
1866, and 1870-71, seems really an exaggerated 
stretch of appreciation of the merits of the man. 

With some of these adulatory admirers of the 
prince it has, indeed, become the fashion to throw 
sneering doubts upon the high military capacity and 
tactical genius of the Crown Prince, who, to believe 
these would-be detractors, has simply reaped what his 
chief of the staff had sown. 

In the memoir of the Crown Prince I have already 
demoDstrated the utter groundlessness of this 
gratuitous assertion, and I have also shown that 
*' Our Fritz," as the old emperor so affectionately calls 
his first-bom, has not committed a single blunder in 

New German Empire. 

the campaigns of 1866 and 1870-71, but that he has, 
on the contrary, displayed a rare aptitude for re- 
pairing the grievous mistakes of others, including, 
for instance, Prince Frederick Charles's patent 
miscalculation at Sadowa. 

The Crown Prince is a bom general, with no war- 
like predilections ; his cousin is a soldier through and 
through, with the most emphatic military proclivities. 

Prince Frederick Charles Nicholas was bom at 
Berlin on the 20th of March, 1828. He is the eldest 
and only son of Prince Charles of Prussia, only 
surviving brother of the German emperor, and 
Princess Marie of Saxe-Weimar, sister of the Empress 

As a prince of the house of Prussia he was, of 
course, from early infancy, intended for and brought 
up in the military career. 

EUb education was most carefully attended to. He 
enjoyed in his milituy and scientific studies the 
guidance of the most eminent and most renowned 
teachers, more particularly of Major Roon, subse- 
quently Minister of War. 

The major was expressly selected by Prince Charles 
to attend the young prince in his studies at the 
University of Bonn, where Frederick Charles remained 
about two years, from 1846 to 1848. 

An intimate Mendship was formed here between 
the brilliant major and his young charge, who, it is 
not too much to say, formed himself almost exclusively 

o 2 HKiglc 

Men who have made the 

upon the model of hia teacher, in his high qualities 
as well as, unhappily, also in his glaring defects. The 
prince's somewhat exa^erated notions of his high 
princely rank and position, and hia slightly ex- 
travagant insistance upon the blindest and most abso- 
lutely submissive obedience to his will and command 
on the part of aU who happen to be placed under hia 
rule, may truly be aaid to have been instilled into his 
mind by Boon. 

In 1848 he was made captain of cavalry, and 
appointed in that capacity to the staff of Greneral 
Wrangel, whom be attended accordingly in the 
Schleswig campaign. A valiant soldier, like all 
HohenzoUems, and a fearless rider, he gained some 
personal distinction in the fight of Schleswig. 

In 1849 he was raised to the rank of major, and 
attached to the staff of his uncle, Prince William of 
Prussia, whom he attended in the Baden campaign. 
In the fight of Wiesenthal (June 20), where Franz 
Sigel was very near snatching a victory over the 
Prussian troops opposed to him, the young hussar 
officer made several brilliant charges at the head of 
his squadron. 

Here he waa aeverely wounded in the arm and 
ahoulder. His recovery was rather long and tedious. 
He, however, turned the time of this enforced leisure 
to most excellent account; he studied hard, more 
particularly military sciences and history, the lives 
and campaigns of Frederick the Great and of the 


New German Empire. 

first Napoleon forming the subject of his special 

After his recovery he returned to his military 
duties, and advanced gradually to the rank of lieu- 
tenant-general of cavalry. 

In 1854 he married Princess Maria Anna, daughter 
of Duke Leopdd Frederick of Anhalt Dessau, one of 
the wealthiest of the princes of Germany. 

In 1859 his uncle, the Prince Regent, placed him 
at the head of the 3rd army corps. 

Francis Joseph's obstinate dislike of Prussian 
assistance deprived Frederick Charles of the eagerly 
anticipated chances of trying conclusions with the 
French. But, although thus compelled to look on as 
an idle spectator of the deeds of others, he yet 
managed to turn the Austro-Italian campaign to the 
most profitable account for his military schooling. 
He eagerly watched the French tactics in this war, 
and, with the lessons of his great teacher (Koon) 
impressed on his mind, he easily detected their 
palpable defecta. 

He clearly saw that it was certainly not the 
superior prowess of the French or the high military 
ability of their commanders which had overthrown the 
Austrians in the field, but that it was chiefly, if not 
even exclusively, the gross incapacity of Giulay, and 
the still grosser incapacity of Francis Joseph himself 
and the gentlemen of his military cabinet, which had 
led to the catastrophes of Magenta and Solferina 


Men w^ have made the 

The prince gathered round him a somewhat ex- 
tensive circle of superior officers, to whom ho 
explained his viewe, and with whom he disciissed the 
many important questions arising there&om or in 
connection therewith. Those privileged to join in 
the prince's dissertations on strategic and tactical 
qaestions soon b^an to entertain the highest opinion 
of this young general's ability. 

Some of t^e moat prominent of his military essays 
Frederick Charles had litho^aphed for private 
circulation among his own circle. 

However, one of these essays obtained a wider 
publicity, much against the will and wish of the 

It appeared at Frankfort-on-the-Main, in 1860, witii 
the unpretending title, "A Military Memorial, by 
P. F. C." It was simply an essay on the ways and 
means of the Prussian army to overcome the French 
in fight It created great stir, more especially in 
France, where it made much bad blood, it would 
seem, and provoked several " victorious refutations," 
en attendant the chance of teaching the presuming 
Prussians better at the first opportunity on die field 
of battle. 

Frederick Charles himself was greatly annoyed hy 
the unauthorized publication of his essay. He even, 
against the advice of his fiiends, brought an action 
gainst the publisher, who had taken the unwarrant- 
able liberty to add a preface of his own manufacture 


N'ew German Empire. 87 

to the prince's essay — a preface thoroughly alien to 
Frederick Charles's own personal views. The action 
ended in the prince's discomfiture ; the publisher 
being triumphantly acquitted. 

In 1861 Frederick Charles attained the high rank 
of general of cavalry in the Prussian army. 

When the Danish war broke out in 1864 the prince 
had intrusted to him the command of the right 
wing of the Prussian corps. 

Wrangel was appointed commander-in-chief of the 
allied Austro-Pnissian forces. Considering t^e great 
age of the old marshal, it was almost transparent that 
the command was meant to be more nominal than 
real, and that it had been bestowed upon the old 
man simply to guard against hurting Austrian sus- 

At fdl events, Prince Frederick Charles might fairly 
be considered to be almost independent in his sub- 
command, and to have pretty free hand to devise 
and execute his own plan of campiugn, so that the 
unsuccessful attempt upon Missunde (2nd of February) 
must be put down entirely to the debit aide of the 
prince's account. 

However, he soon retrieved this first failure by 
turning o£F to the right and marching on Amis, 
where he successfiilly crosded the Schley on the 6th 
of February — a clever strategic move, which com- 
pelled the Danes to evacuate the £unous Dannewerk. . 

The prince now marched upon the fortified position 


Men who liave made the 

of DUppel, which, he found a very hard nut to crack. 
It took, in fact, a regular siege of two months' dura- 
tion to prepare the way for the final storm upon the 
DUppel lines, which were gallantly carried at last on 
the ISthof ApriL 

Preparations had now to be made to cross over to 
Alaen ; this operation, however, was not executed 
by the prince, for after Wrangel's resignation (t^e old 
man thought he had do business there), the prince suc- 
ceeding to the command-in-chief, Gieneral Herwarth 
von Bittenfeld, his successor in the command of the 
light wing of the Prussian corps, effected the capture 
of the important island of Alsen. 

All thiags duly considered, and taking into ac- 
account also, and more especially, the very great 
disproportion of the forces engaged on both sides, 
no conscientious historian would venture to claim 
a very large laurel wreath for Frederick Charles 
because of his high deeds in the Danish campaign 
of 1864. 

But two years after, in 1866, die prince had a 
much better and more promising opportunity afforded 
him to gain the reputation of a great commander, 
and it must be conceded by all, even by those whose 
belief in the prince's military ability is by no means 
absolute, that Frederick Charles fuUy and most suc- 
cessfully availed himself of this opportunity. 

He was intrusted by the king with the command 
of the first Prussian army, formed of the 2nd, 


New German Empire. 89 

3rd, and 4th corpe, numbeiing altogether 93,000 
effectivea With this army the prince started from 
bis heod-qnarters in Saxon Luaatia on the 22nd of 
Jane, and crossed into Bohemia the day after, where 
he was speedily joined (28th of June) by General 
Herwarth von Bittenfeld with the army of the Elbe, 
numbering some 46,000 effectives, so that the prince 
had tmder his supreme command altogether about 
140,000 men. 

Three days before the junction of the two armies 
the prince had defeated part of the Austrian forces 
opposed to him at Liebenau. 

This first encounter was almost entirely limited 
to an artillery fight, and of no very great importance. 
Bat the day after (26th of June) he attacked the 
Austrians again at Podol, where a most obstinate and 
bloody fight ensued, which ended only at midnight, 
when Podol was at last finally taken by the Prussians. 

It was at Podol where the needle-gun for the first 
time came into terrible play. An entire battalion of 
Austrian riSes was annihilated here almost to a man. 

On the 28th the prince, having now effected his 
junction with the army of the Elbe, made a grand 
attack upon the corps of Clam-Gallas and the Saxon 
army which had joined it. 

The battle took place at MUnchengratz. It ended 
in the defeat of the Austrians and Saxons, and in 
their retreat to Gitschin, where they took up a for- 
midable position on a steep rock before the town. 


Men who have made the 

Next day (29th of June) the prince had this position 
attacked by tvro Prussian divisiona, which, after a most 
obstinate and bloody fight, in which heavy loss was 
inflicted and snfi'ered on both sides, drove the Aus- 
trians &om it headlong into the town of Gitschin. 
The victorious Prassians relentlessly pursued the 
defeated enemy, and continued the fight in the 
streets of Gitschin. After one of the fiercest struggles 
in the history of this war the Austrians were ulti- 
mately driven out, and compelled to retreat to 

The corps of Cl^u-GaUas had suffered fearfully in 
these battles. It was almost disoi^anized. But the 
Austrian general had bravely done his duty. Bene- 
dek's faulty dispositions had contributed most largely 
to bring about the catastrophe. 

But Benedek was unfortunately, to the grievous 
damage of his own reputation, mean enough to en- 
deavour to cover his own responsibihty by sacrificing 
his sub-commander, whom he accused in his reports 
to Vienna of having, by his want of military capacity, 
caused the overthrow and dissolution of his corps, 
adding that this grievous failiire of Clam-Gallas alone 
had compelled him (Benedek) to relinquish offensive 
operations, and to concentrate his army rearward 
upon KoniggriLtz. 

This false charge led to the aunmiary dismissal of 

poor Clam-Gallas from his command, which he had 

to hand over to Count Gondrccourt. Clam-Gallas 

, I by Google 

New German Empire. 

afterwards succeeded in proving the " unfaimeas," 
to use no harsher word, of Benedek's conduct to 
him iu the affiiir. 

On the 2nd of July, King William, attended hj 
Boon, Moltke, and Bismarck, arrived at Oitechin, 

It had been intended to give the Prussian army 
one or two days' rest, but on the evening of the 2nd 
of July General Voigts-Rhetz, chief of the staflf to 
Prince Frederick Charles, and, aoit dit en passant, 
one of the most brilli^it and accomplished officers of 
the Prussian army, reported to his chief that the 
Austrians were crosrang the Bistritz over to Sadowa. 

This report decided General Moltke to bring on a 
general engagement the next day. 

Orders were immediately de^tched to the Crown 
Prince to come up from Kukus, and to take up his 
poeition on the right flank, Prince Frederick Charles 
occupying the front, and General Herwarth von 
Bittenfeld the left flank or wing. 

The ball was opened by Prince Frederick Charles 
in the centre early in the morning of the 3rd 
of July; indeed, report will have it, two hours 
sooner dian Greneral Moltke had contemplated, and 
in the very teeth of the general's injunctions to 
that effect 

The prince, it is asserted, is a man of towering 
ambition, and not without jealousy of his royal 
cousin, the Crown Prince. He was eager, it is 
said, to snatch a complete factory over the Austrians 


Men who have made the 

before his cousin should be able to come up to share 
in the laurels gained by him. 

The time has not yet come, nor are all the requisite 
materials at hand, to decide whether there is actually 
some foundation for this accusation made against die 
prince, or whether it ought to be relegated into the 
extensive domain of historic fictions. 

It has been pleaded that it was not the premature 
attack upon the Austrian position made by the 
prince, but the " unforeseen " delay of the Crown 
Prince in his advance from Kukus to Chlum, that 
imperilled for a time the fortune of the day, This 
plea is peremptorily rejected by Prince Frederick 
Charles's critics, who maintain that there was nothing 
imforeseen in the delay of the Crown Prince's march, 
■ but that Moltke had previously, in fullest anticipa- 
tion of such delay, fixed the time of attack at two 
hours later. 

If Prince Frederick Charles really allowed himself 
to be led away in the matter by his ambition, he 
certainly must have discovered, at an inconveniently 
early period of the day, that ambition is a most 
unsafe guide, and he must have longed for the 
advent of his royal cousin on the right flank as 
ardently as Wellington did for the coming of 
BlUcher's Prussians at Waterloo. 

It must be conceded, however, by all parties, 

even those with a strong bias against the prince, 

that he bore himself right valiantly throughout the 


New German Empire. 93 

fierce fight of Sadowa, and that his tactical dis- 
positions were most masterly. 

His army, also, did its fighting with desperate 
valour, and with unswerving, toughest fimmesa 
throughout. General Fraosecky's division, more 
especially, gained high distinction in tlie battle, and 
the heroic courage of the 26th and 27th regiments 
(Magdeburgers), in the capture of the small wood of 
Sadowa, was truly beyond aU praise. 

Still the fete of the day remained suspended in 
the scales of Fortune, and as noon c^ne there was 
clearly a preponderating incline to the Austrian 
aide. Herwarth von Bittenfeld advanced but dowly 
&om Ihe left wing, and the king, who acted as com- 
mander-in-chief of the combined annies, was over- 
long detained on Froblus-hill, where he had taken up 
his station early in the morning. His majesty also 
ardently longed for the arrival of his son and heir, 
but did meanwhile his best to keep the %ht in 
suspense, at least, by the most formidable display 
of artillery. 

To this latter splendid branch of the Prussian 
service belonged unquestionably a considerable share 
of the glory of the ultimate victory, which, as has 
been stated already in the memoir of the Crown 
Prince, was finally gained by the ma^ificently- 
executed movement of the Silesians under Mutius 
across the Trotina — compelling Benedek, at a most 
critical juncture, to change the position of his right 

Men who have made the 

wing — and by the heroic capture of Chlum, effected 
by the Augusta and Elizabeth battaliona of the guard. 

To return once more to the precipitation of the 
attack in the morning imputed to Prince Frederick 
Charles, the prince's critics maintain that it was owing 
in a great measure, at least, to the exhaustion of his 
and Bittenfeld's forces that the battle did not 
eventuate in the total destruction of the Austrians, 
which might have led to more soiprising results even 
than those achieved in the end. 

The prince's alleged " mistake, or miscalculation " 
has by some of his critics been compared in its issue 
and results with tiie famous blunder of General 
Manstein, at Colin, in the Seven Years' War. 

Nov I must candidly confess that this seems to me 
a stretch far beyond anything ever yet before at- 
tempted to throw discredit upon the achievements 
and reputation of a truly great commander in the 

To make this clear I will give a brief sketch here 
of the political and military position of affairs at 
the battle of Colin. 

At the time of that battle, Frederick the Great, 
having just before (6th of May, 1757) gfdned the 
great victory of Prague, with the prospect of com- 
pelling the flurrendcr of the beaten Austrian army, 
which had taken refuge in that city, held apparently 
a most promising position, politically and militarily. 

Of the great coalition formed against him, one 

New German Empire. 

of the most important members, Saxony, was abso- 
lutely in bis hands. The French were only just 
making tJieir appearance on the scene, the Eussians 
were atill far off, and the princes of the Holy Roman 
Empire were just being frightened into the speediest 
withdrawal from the anti-Frussian coalition by 
Colonel Meyer's expedition into Franconia. 

Had the great king succeeded in defeating the 
otiier Austrian army in the field, which was com- 
maitded by Maishal Daun, and bad taken up a 
formidable position at Colin, Prague must have 
surrendered ; the Holy Soman Empire must have 
accepted any conditions of peace it might have 
pleased the victorious Bomssian king to impose 
upon its members ; France and Kussia would have 
thought twice before they had ^oe on with the 
war ; and Maria Theresa would have been compelled 
to make peace again, at the additional sacrifice, 
perhaps, of another province ceded to the con- 

I have said Marshal Datin had taken up a for- 
midable position at Colin. The Austrian front, 
or centnun, looking to the north, was, in fact, 
unassailable to all intents and purposes. Not so 
the right wing, which, if properly attacked by over- 
whelming forces, could hardly avoid being rolled 
up and forced upon the centre. 

The execution of this tactical manoeuvre was in- 
trusted by the king to Generals Ziethen and Hulsen, 


96 Men who have made the 

who commanded the left Prussian wing. The Prus- 
sian centre, tmder Maurice of Dessau, and the right 
wing under the Duke of Bevern, were strictly ordered 
by the king to abstain from all offensive operations 
upon the Austrians opposed to them, and to hold 
themselves in readiness to give tiie most energetic 
support to the attacking left wing of the Prussian 

One of Prince Maurice's sub-commanders in the 
Prussian centre, a General Manstein, a man of 
towering ambition, under pretext of an order from 
the king alleged to have been brought him by M. 
de Varennes, a French refugee in the king's service, 
engaged the fight in the centre, where the Austrian 
position waa absolutely unassailable. 

This gross blunder proved fatal The Prussian 
army was badly defeated, despite the most herojc 
courage and endurance ; it suffered enormous losses, 
and the siege of Prague had to be raised at once and 
Bohemia evacuated by the Prussians. 

General Manstein had committed a similar blunder 
at the battle of Prague, but with less dire resiilts, 
and the king, in the joy of victory, had forborne to 
visit with deserved punishment the general's want 
of strict obedience to commands. 

To pretend to detect the least similarity between 

Prince Frederick Charles's premature attack on the 

morning of the 3rd of Jtlly, even admitting the 

justice of this charge against him (which I for one 


New German Empire. 

will not concede), and Manstein's bold defiance of 
orders at Colin, seems to me positively monBtrous. 

After the battle of Koniggratz, Prince Frederick 
Charles moved wit^ his army into Moravia upon 
Brilnn, Herwarth von Bittenfeld being directed upon 
Iglau, both in tiie direct road to Vienna. 

The Archduke Albrecht, having meanwhile taken 
the chief command of all the Austrian forces, ordered 
Benedek up from OlmUtz to Florisdorf, to see whether 
Vienna might not be successfully defended there. 

The Crown Prince tried to cut off Benedek's direct 
line of march to Vienna, but he failed, as has been 
stated already in his memoir. Prince Frederick 
Charles was more successfiil. He sent the division of 
Horn to Lundenburg, where he succeeded (16th of 
July) in forcing Benedek to cross to the left bank of 
the March river. The Austrian general had there- 
fore to effect his retreat to Vienna across the 
lesser Carpathian mountains. 

The last deed of arms performed in this war by 
the army of Prince Frederick Charles was the battle 
of Blumenau. Here General Fransecky vigorously 
attacked the Austrians in front (22nd of July), whilst 
Gfeneral Bose undertook to turn them by a masked 
march over the hills. This operation succeeded fuUy, 
and there was every prospect of another great vic- 
tory, which would have laid Hungary open to the 
Prussians, when, at noon, the news was brought of 
the conclusion of an armistice at head-quarters. 

VOL. 11. H i-ibyGoOQle 

Men who have -made the 

Four days after followed the preliminaries of peace. 

In the Franco-German war of 1870-71, Prince 
Frederick Charles had the command of the Second 
German Army intrusted to him. 

He left Berlin on the 26th of July for his head- 

He first appeared actively on the scene on the 
16th of August, in the fierce fight of Mars-la-Tour. 
He had been moving swiftly upon the French line 
of retreat. In co-operation with this movement, 
General Steinmetz had, on the 1 4tb of August, 
engaged the retreating French at Courcelles, and had 
forced them back behind the fortifications of Metz. 
This had given the prince an additional day, which 
he had turned to the best account. 

The 3rd corps, under tiie command of General 
von Alvensleben II., bore the brunt of this engage- 
ment at Mars-la-Tour, which was one of the fiercest 
and bloodiest battles of the war. It stood opposed 
for hours to overwhelming French forces ; at last it 
was supported by part of the 10th corps, and of 
the 8 th and 9 th corps, under the personal command 
of the prince. Even then the French forces were 
numerically greatly preponderating over the Gei-mana. 
Yet, after twelve hours' incessant struggle, the French 
were thrown back into Metz. 

It was in this terrible battle of Mars-la-Tour that 

six squadrons of German cavalry (7th Cuirassiers and 

ICth Lancers) made the famous dashing attack upon 

,_,:! by Google 

New German Empire. 

the French centre at Vionville, which dekyed Can- 
robert's attempt to break through until it was too 

Surprifie haa often been expressed how this attack, 
however dashing, made by so small a force, could 
possibly have hindered the French centre, consisting 
of two entire corps, firom forcing a way through 
its FruBsian opponents. 

Quite lately the MUiL Wochenhlatt contained a 
query in this same sense, with a suggestion added, 
whether the leaders of the French were not perhaps 
completely confounded and misled by the dash of 
the attack. 

To this Count Schmettau, who had himself com- 
manded one of the two attacking regiments (the 
7th Cuirassiers), replied in the same military journal, 
that he had had occasion, some time after the capitu- 
lation of Metz, to discuss this very affair with the 
French General Henri, who was chief of the staff 
. of Marshal Canrobert on the 16th of August, 1870 
(the day of the battle of Mars-la-Tour), and who 
was present in the field during this attack. General 
Henri, in reply to a question addressed to him by 
General Schmettau, said, *' We could not think that 
two regiments would so madly ride into the open 
jaws of death unless they knew themselves powerfully 

It would seem, accordingly, that it was the slender 
force of the attacking horse which misled the French, 

H 2 C.oogle 

100 Men who have made the 

and made them hesitate at die very time when they 
might have succeeded in their object, since the weak 
Pruaaian forces then opposed to them could not pos- 
ably have hindered them, as Count Schmettau fully 
admita. The coimt claims for the commander of the 
Pruaeian corps, General Alvensleben IL, the high 
credit of having with prompt decision made up his 
mind to incur the risk of the certain loss of two 
regiments of cavalry — but of only two— to purchase 
thereby, perchance, a very great success. 

At Gravelotte also the prince was present, and 
contributed much to the favourable result of the 

Personal dissensions between the prince and General 
Steinmetz, which will be found mentioned more at 
length in the memoir of the general, led to the 
hitter's withdrawal from the army before Metz, 
leaving the prince in undivided and undisturbed 
command of the German besieging forces. 

Here, with some 120,000 men, he kept Bazaine shut 
up in the fortress and fortified camp of Metz, with 
close upon 180,000 men, victoriously repulsing the 
repeated most desperate attempts of the French 
marshal to break through the iron circle he had 
drawn round him and his host. 

The two most formidable of these French sorties 
were made on the Slst of August and the 1st of 
September, and on the 7th of October, the former, in 
which the fight raged almost incessMitly from the 

New German Empire. 

morning of the 31at of August till noon of the lat of 
September, is known in the history of the war as 
the battle of Noisseville. In this, as weU as in the 
latter sortie, when the French attacked from die 
direction of Woippy, the noble division Kummer had 
the lion's share of the fighting. 

At last, on die 27th of October, Bazalne capitulated 
with his whole army, some 173,000 men, including 
three marshals of France and over 6,000 officers, 
whilst Uie conquerors did not much exceed 110,000 
effectives at the time of the surrender — a capitulation 
unique in the anuals of history; for at Sedan the 
circumstances were vastly different, and the surrender 
of Paris also affords no true point of eomparison. 

The day after the capitulation of Metz the king 
raised both Prince Frederick Charles and the Crown 
Prince to the highest rank in the army, that of field- 

In the oldest traditions of the house of Hohen- 
zollern the attainment of this highest military 
position bad never before been open to a prince 
of the royal family. The king's brother, Prince 
Charles, the father of Frederick Charles, figures in 
the rank list of the army simply as master-general 
of ordnance, and the king himself, when Prince 
of Prueaa, had only held the position of colonel- 
genend of infantry. But the estraordmary events 
and the stupendous successes of the French war 
might weU be deemed by the king to fully justify 

102 Men who have made the 

this double departure &om the old traditionaiy rule 
of the family. 

The aurrender of Metz was a most opportune event ; 
for just about that time Gambetta's patriotic exertions 
were beginning to succeed -in sending fresh French 
armies into the field. 

On the 9th of November General d'Aurelle de 
Faladines forced the Bavarians, under Von der Tann, 
to evacuate Orleans. Although he was himself com- 
pelled to stop the pursuit, as General Wittich, Prince 
Albrecht (father), and the Grand Duke of Mecklen- 
burg rapidly joined Von der Tann, yet diis new army 
of the Loire became a real danger to the Germans 
besieging Paris. 

To meet this threatening peril eflfectively, Frede- 
rick Charles received orders from head-quarters to 
march as rapidly as possible fcom Mctz to the 

On the 2nd of November already the prince had 
transferred his own head-quarters from Corny, where 
they had been since the 7th of September, to Pont-^- 
Mousson. On the 10th of November he was at 
Troyes. He advanced rapidly over Sens, Rambouillet, 
Nemours, and Pithiviers, until be came in collision, 
on the 28th of November, with d'Aurelle's army (the 
army of the Loire), at Beaune-la-Rolandc 

He here inflicted a severe defeat on the French, 
who lost some 5,000 killed and wounded, and about 
2,000 unwounded prisoners. 


New German Empire. 103 

On the 3rd of December the prince, in conjunction * 
with the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, defeated the 
French again at Chevilly and Chilliers-aui-Bois, 
driving them back upon Orleans, which important 
cily was re-taken by the Germans on the 5th of 

On this grand occasion more than 10,000 un- 
wounded prisoners were made, and cloae upon eighty 
pieces of artillery taken, together with four gunboats, 
each of them armed with a 24-pounder. 

The prince continued his advance upon Tours. On 
the 12th of December he transferred his head-quarters 
to Beaugency, where the Grand Duke of Mecklen- 
burg had had several days' hard fighting against 
vastly preponderating French forces. Blois was 
occupied on the 13th of December, Vendfime on the 
16th of December. 

By this time the Loire army, commanded now by 
General Chanzy, had been reduced to about half its 
original formidable strength. On the 4th of January, 
1871, Prince Frederick Charles, having completed his 
preparations, moved forward to meet General Chanzy. 

He came upon the army of that general advancing 
on Vend6me, and threw it back beyond Azay and 
Montoire (6th of January). 

The day- after, the French were, by a series of 
obstinate fights, driven suceesaivcly back to Nogent- 
le-Rotrou, Sarg^, Saviguy, and La Chartre, and on 
the 8th beyond St. Calais and Bouloire. On the 12th 


Mm. who have made the 

' of January, finally, Le Mans waa taken by the 
victorious prince, who also carried the French posi- 
tions at St. Comeille, to the north-east of Le Mans. 

The losses of Chanzy's army in the seven days' 
incessant fighting, from the 6 th to the 12th of 
January, were enormouB, Twenty thousand un- 
wounded prisoners fell into the hands of the victors, 
together with many guns and large war stores, &c. 

The famous camp of Conlie was occupied on the 
14th of January. 

With this last successful operation we may iairly 
close here our brief account of Prince Frederick 
Charles's glorious campaign on the Loire. 

On the 28th of January the armistice was concluded, 
which was followed, less than a month after, by the 
signing of the preliminaries of peace. 

On the 22nd of March Prince Frederick Charles 
received from the emperor and king, as a crowning 
proof and most signal mark of his high regard 
and his full appreciation of the prince's great 
achievements in the field, the Grand Cross of the 
Iron Crosa 

The prince is now in his forty-seventh year, in the 
prime and vigour of manhood. He is one of the 
most prosperous among the prosperous, one of the 
moat fortunate among the fortunate. 

Although, owing no doubt to his somewhat haughty 
bearing towfirds those placed under his command, and 
his rigorous enforcement of the sternest and most 

New German Empire. 105 

unbending discipline, it cannot be said that he enjoys 
the devoted love of the army as the Crown Prince 
does, yet officera and soldiers alike look up to him 
with the most respectful esteem, and they will follow 
his lead blindly, and with the most absolute con- 
fidence in his high military capacity. 

They have bestowed upon him the name of the " Iron 
Prince," but he is more generally known still as the 
" Red Prince," from the colour of the hussar uniform 
which he most affects to wear. 

What may the future still have in store for this 
favourite of Fortune ? Who can tell ? Of late his 
name has been brought forward again more than once 
and in several quarters, with evident intention, in 
connection with the throne of Spain. WeU, Quien 
sahe t Of course his truest friends can only wish the 
prince a lucky escape from such a windfaU of fortune 
aa the glittering bauble of the Spanish crown and 
sceptre ; but ambition is a strange and most 
dangeroiis passion — and so again, who knows ? 

by Google 

Men who have made the 



Though placed here third in our list of leaders of 
the German host in the ever-memorable Franco- 
German war of 1870-71, yet ranking second to none 
in that glorious galaxy of great commanders. King 
Albert, a namesake of our own unforgotten and 
never-to-be-forgotten Prince Consort, springa also 
from the same most ancient and most noble house 
of Wettin. 

Wettin is now only a small, wholly unimportant 
place, of some four thousand soula. Yet a thousand 
years ago it was the (legendary) cradle and chief 
seat of power of the mighty Wettinkind, or Widukin, 
the antique Saxon hero, who for thirteen years nobly 
withstood the overwhelming giant power of the 
Prankish King Charles, dubbed Carolus Magnus by 
that capricious jade Clio, who so dearly likes to 
adulate success. 

However little substantial foundation in truth there 
may be for the legendary connection between Wettin 
and Wettinkind, thus mucli is certain, at all events. 

New Gferman Empire. 107 

that Wettin was the ancestral seat of the Thanes, or 
Counts, of that ilk, to whom all the royal and ducal 
Saxon and Thuringian houses of the present day trace 
their origin and pedigree. 

King Albert's father, the late King John of Saxony, 
played an important part in the great events of the 
last few years. It was more especially dread of his 
action in the matter which induced King Louis of 
Bavaria to be beforehand with him in tendering the 
crown of a new German empire to King William of 
Prussia. Had the Bavarian not taken time by the 
forelock on the occasion, there can be little doubt 
that the new empire would have been established 
at the time at once upon a much more rational and 
satisfactory basis than that on which it happens to 
stand now, and without the wretched trammels of 
those foolish reserved sovereign rights of its king- 
lets and princelets, which may yet unhappily prove 
the fruitful source of internal convulsions and foreign 
intrigue complicationa For this reason King John 
may well claim a place among the men who have 
been instrumental in creating the new German 
empire. A brief biographic sketch of the father 
may therefore serve here as a suitable introduction 
to the memoir of the son. 


It is a trite old saying, that the people have rarely 
cause to mourn when kings die. Still there are excep- 


108 Men taho have made the 

tiona from time to time, just to prove the rule. One 
of auch rare ezceptiooal instances had to be chxomcled 
in the annahi of history on 29th of October, 1873, 
when King John of Saxony departed this life.^ 

The deceased monarch was not a great king in any 
of the generally received senses and acceptations of 
the term. Hia dominions did not quite cover the 
limited area of six thousand English square miles, 
whilst the number of his subjects fell iax short of 
the figure of the population of the British metropolis. 
No warrior-king was he ; no new provinces annexed 
he to his realm. He did not gather round him poets, 
artists, and musicians, that he might bask in second- 
hand reflected " intellectual " glory ; ay, he did not 
even start an international exhibition of works of 
industry and art, that his name might thereby be 
made great and renowned among men. 

But he was emphatically a noble specimen of the 
noblest work of the Almighty Father of all — an 
honest man, and a worthy king of men. Indeed, of 
him and of his life and deeds the truth may be 
recorded undisguisedly, without fear of offending 
against the spurious old canon that naught should be 
spoken of the dead but the things redounding to their 

John — ^for a truly great man such as the father of 

the present King of Saxony needs not the benefit of 

that full string of baptismal belongings which is 

generally bestowed upon Catholic princes; and with 

,_ I by Google 

New German Empire. 109 

his people " Our King " and " Father John " had for 
many years past become interchangeable terms — was 
one of the younger sons of Duke Maximilian of 
Saxony and Caroline Maria Theresa of Parma, of the 
Italian-Spanish branch of the house of Bourbon. He 
was bom on the 12th of December, 1801, and had 
the misfortune of losing his mother when not much 
more than two years old. His father, Duke 
Maximilian, was not a great prince, but he was an 
excellent parent, and he bestowed the utmost care 
and BoUcitude upon the proper education of his 

Prince John's inatructors were distinguished officers 
and scholars, such as Generals Forell and Watzdorf, 
Councillor StUbel, the famous criminalist and legist, 
who fired his young pupil with his own ardent love 
for the law, and that noblest priest of the non-Jiomisk 
Catholic Church, Baron Ignatius Wessenberg, Vicar- 
General of Constance, the intimate friend of the great 
Chancellor Dalberg, and the man who strove so hard 
to establish in Germany a National Catholic Church 
— a German Catholic Church, under an independent 
German Primate, and free alike from all connection 
with the Baal of Rome and the poisonous teachings 
of the Vatican. - He failed : the time was not ripe 
for bis high and noble aspirations. But, happily, a 
greater and stronger man than he has taken up the 
glorious work anew, and, with God's blessing, will 
carry it to a glorious consummation. Bismarck is 


Men who have made the 

the St Patrick who will ultimately chaae the Romish 
vipers out of the fail land. 

Under the intelligent guidance of these and other 
kindred teachers, Piince John gathered a rich store of 
sound knowledge in nearly every field of human lore 
and branch of human knowledge. The great and 
wise men who presided over the political and social 
dep^ment of his studies used their best endeavours 
to teach him practical statesmanship in preference to 
mere hollow statecraft. And they succeeded marvel- 
lously well in their endeavours. Ere yet he had 
reached the twentieth year of his life he was fit to 
enter the Board of Finance as an adept, and he there 
soon shone as one of the most clear-headed and 
hardest workers. 

His assiduous labour affecting his health, his anx- 
ious father insisted upon his accompanying his elder 
brother Clement on a journey which the latter was 
then just about to make to their deceased mother's 
native land (l82l). The two Saxon princes made a 
long stay in Italy, where the elder of them died. 

It was here where Prince John imbibed that pas- 
sionate admiration and love of Petrarch, Ariosto, and 
more especially of the divine Dante, which he 
retained through life. 

After his return to his native land he resumed 
his old position on the Board of Finance (1823), of 
which he became vice-president a few months after. 

Even the surprising amount of sterling work which 

JVew; German Empire. 

he did in this department, and of which the little 
kingdom reaped the benefit, did not satisfy his eager 
craving for doing. In his rare leisure hours he pro- 
duced a German version of the first ten cantos of 
Dante's Inferno, done in blank HendecasyUabics, 
with critical annotations that fully showed the ripe 
scholar. This work was printed for private circu- 
lation among his personal friends. It was signed 
" Philalethes," a signature which soon became known 
as that of a distinguished contributor to several of 
the leading literary periodicals of Germany. 

It was about this time that the Saxon Antiquarian 
and Archaeological Society was formed, which he 
eagerly joined, and of which he was soon made presi- 
dent, a position held by him for many years after — 
not in the mere honorary way in which so many 
princes accept titular positions of this nature, but truly 
■ and actually as the facile princeps of the members. 
About this time he found that his estate of 
Jahnishausen did not yield him a revenue corre- 
sponding to what practical landowners obtained from 
their properties ; so he threw himself, with his accus- 
tomed ardour, upon the study, theoretical and 
practical, of farming and rural economy, and with 
such brilliant success that his Jahnishausen estate 
in a few brief years, from worse than indifferent, as it 
had long been, leaped to the high position of a perfect 
model farm on a large scale. 

On the 21st of November, 1 822, Prince John married 


Men who have matte the 

Frincess Amelia Augusta, one of the daughters of 
King Mazimilian I. of Bavaria, who survives him. 
By her he had issue three sons and one daughter. One 
of the sons is dead. The Crown Prince, now King 
Frederick Augustus Albert, was bom the 23rd of April, 
1828 ; his sister Maria Elizabeth, Dowser Duchess 
of Genoa, was bom the 4th of February, 1830, and his 
only surviving brodier, Frederick Augustus George, 
who also distinguished himself in the late Franco- 
German war, and commanded the Saxon corps after 
his brother Albert had been appointed general-in- 
chief of the army of the Meuse, was bom the 8th of 
August, 1832. 

Prince George is married (since the 11th of May, 
1859) to the Portuguese Infanta Maria Anna, daughter 
of King Ferdinand (of the house of Saxe-Coburg Gotha) 
and Queen Maria II. da Gloria, by whom he has issue 
three sons and two daughters. The present king has 
no issue. 

The revolutionary wave which swept over a great 
part of Europe in 1830 struck also the little kingdom 
of Saxony. 

Old King Anton was not a good king by any 
means, so hia subjects politely requested him to hand 
the reins of government over to Prince Frederick 
Augustus, John's elder brother, and the next prince 
in succession, the father, Duke Maximilian of 
Saxony, having resigned his claim to the throne, by 
Act of the 13th of September, 1830. On the samedai 


I day 


New German Empire. 

Prince Frederick Augustus was named co-regent. 
Prince John took the command of the Communal 
Guard, which he retained for many years after. He 
also entered the Privy Council, and after the dissolu- 
tion of the latter he accepted the proffered presidency 
of the Council of State, together with the presidency 
of the Board of Finance. 

In all these high and important offices, his clear, 
practical mind, his urbane and conciliatory manners, 
and his immense working capacity, gained him golden 
opinions from all quarters. He took a most active 
part and share in the framing of the new liberal and 
representative constitution of the realm. 

After the passing of that constitution be took his 
seat in the Upper House as a prince of the blood. 
His statesmanlike views, his simple, natural eloquence, 
and his power of clear exposition, soon gained him 
a prominent place in the foremost rank of the leaders 
of that august assembly. Many of the most prac- 
tical and liberal measures of the time originated with 
him, or owed their success to his energetic support. 

His wisdom and moderation carried him through 
the revolutionary excitement of 1848 with his per- 
sonal popularity undiminished. In 1839-49 he pub- 
lished a splendid German version of Dante's " Divioa 
Commedia " in three volumes, with numerous critical 
and historical notes. 

After the death of King Anton, who since Sep- 
tember, 1830, had simply continued the nominal head 


114 Men who have made the 

of the state, Prince Frederick Auguatue, the co-re- 
gent, succeeded to the Saxon throne, 6th of June, 
1836. On the 9th of August, 1854, King Frederick 
Augustus II. came to an untimely death, universally 
mourned and regretted by his people. As he left 
no issue, Prince John inherited the crown. 

The new king expressed his firm resolve to tread 
in the footsteps of his late lamented brother 
and' predecessor; and this resolve he kept reli* 
gionsly &om the day of his accession to the last 
day of his life. 

Among the most glorious measures of his reign, 
most of which proceeded firom his own initiative, 
may be mentioned more particularly the new law 
organization; an extensive and comprehensive series 
of codifications of the laws and statutes of the land ; 
the removal of all obsolete and vexatious trammels 
that impeded the free development of trade and in- 
dustry, and the extension and improvement of tlie 
great Saxon railway net 

Every year, up to the end of his Ijfe, he made an 
annual journey of careful and conscientious inspection 
through the length and breadth of his small king- 
dom, more particularly through the manufacturing 
districts ; seeing everywhere with his own eyes, and 
hearing with his own ears — quite against the ordi- 
nary custom of kings — and suggesting and carrying 
out everywhere measures admirably calculated to bene- 
fit the working classes. 

Digilized by Google 

Neio German Empire. 

No wonder they bo affectionately called hira 
"Father John." He was indeed a father to them. 

That he was not so successful in foreign politics 
as in t^e internal administration of his kingdom was 
truly not so much a fault of his, but was owing 
almost entirely to a fortuitous combination of fatal 
circumstances over which he had but little control. 

Both his late brother and he had married prin- 
cesses of the house of Bavaria, daughters of King 
Maximilian I. His brother's wife was a twin sister 
of the Archduchess Sophia of Austria, the late mother 
of the Emperor Francis Joseph ; his own wife was a 
twin sister of the present Queen Dowager of Prussia. 

These four Bavarian princesses exercised for many 
years a most pernicious action and influence upon 
German affairs. 

Sophia of Austria was the moving and guiding 
spirit of the palace intrigue which compelled poor 
Smperor Ferdinand to abdicate, and threw the whole 
power of the state into her own hands. It was she 
who committed the horrible murders of the Hungarian 
patriot generals at Axad, and all those atrocities for 
which the London draymen assaulted Haynau. 

Queen Elizabeth of Prussia had gained complete 
mastery over the weak and uxorious mind of 
Frederick William IV. It was her fatal influence 
which brought the humiliation of OlmUtz upon the 
land that had the misfortune to call her queen. 

The two Saxon queens, the dowager and the wife 

I 2 i.dbyGoogk' 

116 Men who have made the 

of King John, worked in all political questions 
hand in hand with their Austrian and Prussian 
sisters ; and with them, and inspired and guided by 
the four, laboured Baron Beust, the leading minister 
of state of Saxony, and the ministers of Bavaria, 
Wurtemberg, and Hesse — all joining in the noble 
task of curbing and if possible destroying the rising 
and growing power of Prussia. 

King John of Saxony, with hia clear mind, saw 
indeed through their intrigues, and for a time at 
least did his best to discourage and counteract them. 

Thus, in 1862, when the continued existence of the 
Prussian Customs Union was gravely imperilled by 
Auatria'a machinations, he was the first to declare 
for the renewal of that union, and to give his ad- 
hesion to the Franco-Prussian Treaty of Commerce. 

He also adhered to the Prusso-Italian Treaty of 
Commerce, and disregarding alike the solicitations 
and the remonstrances of the two queens and the 
wily counsel and insinuations of the' minister of state, 
frankly recognized the new kingdom of Italy. 

But King John was a loyal member of the Ger- 
man Confederation, and a sincere professor of the 
Goman Catholic faith ; for, strange to say, the kings 
of Saxony, although descended from what may well 
be called the oldest Protestant house in Germany, 
and ruling over a Protestant people {the number of 
Catholics in Saxony barely exceeds 2 per cent, of the 
population), have been Roman Catholics ever since 


New German Empire. 117 

the Elector Frederick Augustus of Saxony was 
beguiled into placing the glittering but worse than 
worthless bauble of the Polish crown upon his 
head (1697). 

Now the smaller kings and princes of the Ger- 
man Confederation had, from the first, always shown 
a leaning to Austria and distrust of Prussia. Joining 
their votes to that of the former power, their anti- 
Prussian policy could always secure a majority in the 
councLls of the Confederation. The king^ of Saxony 
had always voted with the majority, and King John 
thooght himself in honour bound to go with that 
majority, at least in all important questions. As a 
Romanist, also, he preferred the interests of Catholic 
Austria to those of Protestant Prussia. 

Upon the death of King Frederick of Denmark, the 
old Schleswig-Holstein question, which had been per- 
mitted to slumber for a time, came suddenly again to 
the surface, as lively as ever. 

After some ineffectual attempts at .a settlement 
with the new Danish king, the German Confedera- 
tion passed a resolution to occupy the Duchy of Hol- 
stein militarily (7th of December, 1863), Saxony and 
Hanover being selected by the Confederation to carry 
out the decree. A mixed Saxon and Hanoverian 
corps accordingly took military possession of Holstein. 

Soon after. Otto von Bismarck made the first great 
move in his surprising political game, in persuading 
Austria to join with Prussia in a wax against Den- 


118 Men who have made the 

mark, with a view to settle the Schleswig-Holstein 
question for ever, by taking the Elbe Duchies away 
&om Denmark. 

Austria and Prussia carried matters with a high 
hand, and paid but scanty respect to the Confedera- 
tion, which saw itself soon compelled to order the 
withdrawal of the Sazon and HanoTerian forces from 
Hoktein (by resolution of the 5th of December, 1864). 

There can be no doubt that the king felt per^ 
sonally hurt by the slight put upon the Confederar 
tion and upon himself, which he attributed almost 
wholly to the agency of Prussia and of Bismarck.' 

So when the complications of 1866 arose, he was 
easily prevailed upon by the petticoat coterie and 
the whi^rings and promptings of Beust to take the 
side of Austria in the diplomatic conflict roused in 
the bosom of the Confederation. Beust had perfectly 
free hand now. 

Urged on blindly by his fi'oggy ambition, and wi- 
dowed by nature with an intriguing spirit and with 
all the mischievous restlessness of the squirrel Rata- 
tasker of the mythic fable, this shallow politician, 
this Brummagem BrUhl of the nineteenth century, 
patted on the back by the four Bavarian princesses, 
devised a pretty little scheme to bring the house of 
HohenzoUem to humiliation and grief. 

As he was joined in this scheme by Von der 
Pfordteii, Vambiiler, Dalw^k, and the representative 
of the phydcally, morally, and intellectually blind 

New German Empire. 

King of Hanover, and, lastly, by the great Victor 
Strauas, the mighty plenipotentiary of the powerful 
Prince of Schaumbiirg-Lippe, be ancceeded in splitting 
Grermany into two hostile camps. 

The first effect of this success was to drive King 
John from his kingdom, which was taken possession 
of by the invading Pnissians. Indeed Bismarck, 
Rood, and Moltke had planned so well that had it 
not been ios the fatal delay of one day's respite 
granted to Saxony and Hanover (from the 15th to the 
16th of June) by King William, in compliance with 
tlie vehement prayer of the Dowager Queen Elizabeth, 
the whole Saxon army of 40,000 effectives would pro- 
bably have been cut off from Bohemia and compelled 
to surrender, and the battle of I<angensalza need not 
have been fought 

I have placed the effective strength of the Saxon 
army which marched into Bohemia to join Benedek 
at 40,000 men, a figure which I think corresponds 
with the fact of the case. Certain Saxon historians 
would appear to place it much higher, from patriotic, 
but surely most unhistoric, motives. They assert diat 
60,000 Saxons joined Benedek, although they are 
compelled to admit that the Saxon army consisted 
of only two infantry divisions of four regiments each, 
one cavalry division, and the corre^nding force of 
artilleiy. The same historians also assert that the 
Saxons were never defeated in the Bohemian war, but 
had to retire from the field by Benedek's special orders 


120 Men who have made the 

— at GitBchiu, for instance. This, though not true, 
might be indulgently passed OTer, and put down to 
an excess of laudable patriotic pride. But to exalt the 
bravery of the Saxons and the military talents of 
their commander at the expense of the Austriana and 
of Benedek, and to say, as these historians do, that 
tie Saxons constituted the backbone of Benedek's 
forces, and were the only troops who fought valiantly 
and veil and were properly led, seems to me a most 
reprehensible open perversion of the truth and the 
facts of the case. However, enough of this lq this 

After the defeat of Benedek, Kiug John retired to 
.Vienna; subsequently to Teplitz. When peace was 
concluded, he returned to his little kingdom amidst 
the joyful acclamations of hia faithful and loving 
people (November, 1866). 

When Saxony had become a member of the North 
German Confederation, King John showed the most 
steadfast loyalty to Prussia. 

In 1870 he promptly sent his army, under the 
command of his two sons (Crown Prince Albert, and 
Prince George), to swell the German host. 

The high deeds wrought in France by the Saxon 
contingent and its heroic leaders are matters of his- 
tory, and will, in slight part at least, be found 
recorded also iu the memoir of Kiug Albert shortly 
to follow. 

It must indeed have been a proud day for King 
,_ ibyGoogIc 

New German Empire. 

Joha when the 23rd dlTision made its triumphal 
entry into Dresden (11th of July, 1871), and when 
he, the happy Either, acting as representative and 
in the name of the German emperor, placed the 
field-marshal's staff in the hands of the victor of 
Beaumont, his own beloved son Albert — the same 
golden staff of command which John Sobiesky had 
so proudly waved in his chivalrous right hand on 
hUi triumphal entry into Vienna, freed by his 
gallantry and skill from the Turkish besiegers. 

A few months later there came another great 
national celebration — the unveiling of Theodore 
Kdmer's statue, 18th of October, 1871, the anniversary 
of the great victory over the French at Leipzig. 
And, finally, some thirteen months after, on the 21st 
of November, 1872, King John celebrated his own 
" golden " day, the fiftieth anniversary of his marriage 
with his wife Amalia, amidst the warmest congratu- 
lations sent by all the princely houses of Europe, and 
the heartiest and most loviug manifestations of sym- 
pathy and kindest wishes of his own true Sazon people. 

Altogether, the last two years of King John's life 
were peaceful and happy. 

He DOW sleeps witii his fathers, a good king and 
a worthy man. 

There is small need to perpetuate his memory in 
stone or marble, or in brass or bronze ; he has raised 
for himself an everlasting monument in the faithful 
hearts of his loving people. 

Digilized by Google 

Men who have made the 

After this brief biographic sketch of the father, 
we will now proceed with the memoir of the son. 

Frederick Augustus Albert was bom on the 23rd of 
April, 1828. He received a most careful education 
under the immediate superriBion of his royal father 
and of bis grandfather Duke Maximilian, who, how- 
ever, departed this life ere his young grandson had 
completed his tenth year. 

Albert had for his chief guides in the paths of 
learning Lieutenant-Colonel Minkwitz and General 
Engel, both of them highly accomplished officers ; 
Dr. Langem, afterwards president of the High Court 
of Appeal, one of the leading legista of Germany, as 
well as one of the most eminent historians of the age ; 
Dr. Schneider, afterwards Minister of State, also an 
eminent legist, and some other men of the same 
high intellectual stamp. 

Prince Albert showed from a very early age a 
decided predilection for the military career. When 
barely fifteen (1843) he entered the Saxon artillery 
as lieutenant Two years after, another distin- 
guished officer, Major Mangoldt, afterwards general, 
was appointed the prince's military tutor ; be also 
went with him to Bonn in the fall of 1847. Here^ 
in this favourite resort of royal students. Prince 
Albert attended,the lectures of Dahlmann and Perthes, 
and other celebrities, but the revolutionary outbreak 
of 1848 cut short his stay at that highly-favomred 
scat of the Muses. 

Digilized by Google 

New German Empire. 123 

On his return to Saxony he preferentially aonght 
the society and conveisation of diBtinguished officers, 
such as Fabrice, Stieglite, Abendroth, Moutbe, and 
otheiB, and eagerly seized every opportanity to in- 
crease hia store of military knowledge. 

In the Schleswig-Holfitein war of 1848-49 he was 
attached to the staff of the FrosBian General Pritt- 
witz. It is said he distinguished himself in that 
most melancholy of all campaigns, that most lugu- 
brious of all farces. His uncle, King Frederick 
Angustus, bestowed npon him as a reward the mili- 
tary Saxon Order of St. Henry. 

In 1849 Prince Albert was advanced to the rank 
of major, and the year after to a lieutenant-colonelcy 
and the command of the 3rd infantry brigade. In 
1851 he was made major-general, and the year after 
lieutenant-general and commander of the 1st infantry 
division. He was then twenty-four years old. It 
may be remarked here, en passant, that princes of 
the royal house of Prussia do not advance quite so 
fast as this in the Prussian army. Even Prince 
Frederick Charles, who was bom in the same year 
with King Albert, and whose advancement was ex- 
ceptionally rapid, had to wait a few years longer for 
the high rank of lieutenant-general 

On the 18th of J\me, 1853, Prince Albert married 
Princess Carola, or Caroline, daughter of Gustavus 
Prince of Wasa, whom Louis Napoleon had the year 
before wished to espouse, it was at the time generally 

124 Men who have made the 

reported, but only to see his suit contumeliously 
rejected by the proud Lackland of the old Swedish 
king family. Had Guatavus Waaa been less stiffly 
proud and more yielding, and had Carola become 
the modern Caesar's wife — instead of Eugenie Montijo 
— how immense would have been the effect upon the 
history of the last fifteen years or so 1 However, Dia 
aliter visum. So there 'm an end of it, and no use 
whatever to speculate upon what might have been if. 

In 1861 Crown Prince Albert of Sasony (his 
father had succeeded his uncle on the throne of 
Saxony some seven years before) was sent to Konigar 
berg in Prussia, to witness the coronation of King 
William I, It was here where he met for the first 
time the then darling of Fortune, M'Mahon, Marshal 
of France, Duke of Magenta. Nine years after, he 
was destined to meet bim again on the battle-field of 
Beaumont, the portentous precursor of the catadysm 
of Sedan 1 

In 1866 the Crown Prince of Saxony conmiandcd 
the Saxon army of 40,000 effectives, in every way 
well found and equipped, and provided with a well- 
schooled artillery, which was marched into Bohemia 
to swell the Austrian host there under Benedck, and 
to help to break the Prussian columns that were 
invading the old battle-ground ;^ain in the style 
of the Seven Years' War. 

On the 22nd of June the Saxons joined the corps 

of Clam Gallas, and shared the subst^qucnt grievous 

,_ ibyGoogIc 

New German Empire. IQ^ 

defeats of that corps. The Saxons fought with 
desperate bravery, and were extremely well handled 
by their royal leader. This is the simple truth ; 
but to assert that they did aU the fighting, and the 
Austrians little or none of it, as baa been attempted 
to be done, and that they (the Saxons) would have 
carried the day repeatedly, more especially at Gitsehin, 
had liiey not been compelled by Benedek's express 
orders to retire from the field, victoriously held by 
them at the time, is reaUy a stretch over-much 
beyond what is admissible and allowable even in 
historic fiction. Such things ought to be left to the 

At Koniggrittz Prince Albert and his Saxons again 
shared the defeat of Benedek and the Austrians. 
Here also the Saxons fought extremely well, and 
the Saxon artillery contributed largely to cover the 
retreat of the defeated army. 

The royal family of Saxony, the Crown Prince 
included, now took up their residence in Vienna 
till the conclusion of peace, after which they returned 
to Dresden. 

The king and the Crown Prince both declared 
that they woidd henceforth be as loyal to the North 
German Confederation, imder the leadership of 
Prussia, as they had proved themselves to the now 
defunct old German Confederation. The Crown 
Prince showed such vigorous good will in aidmg in 
the reorganization of the Saxon army »b an integral 


126 Men wAa have made the 

part of the great North German host, that King 
William I. at once bestowed upon him the inde- 
pendent command of the 12th (Saxon) Army Corps. 

The Crown Prince and his friend, General Fabrice, 
the Saxon Minister of War, were both indefatigable 
in doing everything to bring the Saxon Contingent 
to the highest state of perfection, and their efforts 
succeeded to the fullest extent, as the Franco-GJerman 
war amply proved. 

In this war Crown Prince Albert continued at Brst 
simply in the command of the 12th corps. His 
orders were to bring up his force to Mayence by the 
2nd of August. He and his men were on the ap- 
pointed spot in perfect readiness two days before 
the time fixed I — nd mean achievement, considering 
that the exacting demands made by the general staff 
of the Prussian army upon the physical and moral 
powera of doing and enduring of the soldiers do not 
leave mnch margin for the performance of such tours 

Prince Albert, with his corps, reached the great 
army before Metz on the 16th of August, in the even- 
ing, and just when he was presenting himself before 
King William at Pont-il-Mousson, news of the hard- 
fought glory of Mars-la-Tour came in. 

On the day of Gravelotte the Saxons had their 

first innings : here the Crown Prince of Saxony had 

the first real opportunity given him to make good 

his claim to the title of a great military commander. 

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New German Empire, 127 

Both he and his troops came gloriously out of the 

The Saxons fought at St. Privat with the same 
death-daring boldness and the same unconquerable 
tenacity as their forefathers of old had combated 
under Widukin and Alboin against the ruthless 
Franks ; under great King Henry, the builder of 
cities, and his son, the Emperor Otto, against the 
savage M^yars ; under Duke Magnus against the 
united power of all other German tribes, and on 
so many other occasions. Prince Albert proved him- 
self a coDsummate commander. He closed up the last 
possible loophole through which Bazaine's army might 
have crept away from the trap in which Moltke's 
sublime still and the unyielding bravery of the 
Germans had caught the great French host of the 
Rhine, ere it had fairly set out yet on its anticipated 
triumphal promenade miUtaire d Berlin! 

King William knew how to appreciate at their 
true value the immense services rendered to the 
German cause by Prince Albert and his Saxons on 
the decisive day of Gravelotte. When he met the 
prince in the evening of that hot day, he afBxed to 
his breast with his own hand the Order of the Iron 
Cross; and the day after he intrusted to him the 
command over a new army, formed of the Saxon 
corps, the Prussian guards, under their glorious chief. 
Prince Augustus of Wurtemberg, the 4th corps, com- 
manded by General Alvonsleben, and the cavalry 

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128 Men who have made the 

divisions Rheinhabeu and Duke William I. of Meck- 
lenbm^. This new army, a true corps d'Slite in the 
fullest sense of the term, received afterwards the 
name of Metise army. For his chief of the staff 
Crown Prince Albert had assigned him General Schlo- 
theim, the very same staff officer who, some four 
years back, had, under Herwarth von Bittenfeld, stood 
opposed to him at Prim and Problus in the battle 
of Kdniggratz. In sober truth, the whirligig of time 
performs strange gyrations, and brings with it mar- 
vellous changes and wonderful mutations ! 

At the time it was believed at the German head- 
quarters that the whole of the disposable French 
forces would be found concentrated for the protection 
of Paris. So the so-called third army, \mder the 
Crown Prince of Prussia, was pushed on rapidly to 
the old (/atalaunian fields, where, in 450, Theodorick 
the Visigoth had gained for the Roman Aetius his 
decisive victory over Attila the Hun, the scourge 
of God. 

The so-called fourth army, under Prince Albert, 
was ordered to cross the Mouse and move on in the 
same direction. More than half the march was done 
already, when Lieutenant-Colonel Verdy du Vemois, 
of the general staff, one of Moltke's most distinguished 
and most trusted aids, suddenly, in the night of the 
25-26th of August, appeared at the prince's head- 
quarters, with the startling news that M'Mahon was 
muching over Rheims in the direction of Mezi^res, 

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New German Empire. 

with the evident intention of raising the siege of 

It was imperative then to make a complete change 
in the disposition of the army, and to march off, 
with the utmost rapidity, northward, to the right, a 
movement which was executed by the seven corps 
comprised in it with a skill, swiftness, and precision 
unparalleled in the history of war. 

On the 26th of August Prince Albert took up his 
head-quarters at CIermont<en-Argonne ; a little later 
on in the evening King William established his own 
head-quarters general in the same place. 

At 10 o'clock that night Schlotheim had an inter- 
view with Moltke, upon whom he waited agtun, in 
company this time with Prince Albert, at 7 o'clock in 
the morning of the 27th of August. Here the prince 
and his chief of the staff received their last instnic- 
tions from the great strategist. 

On the 27th occurred the brilliant cavalry encounter 
of Buzancy, when the French were taken completely 
by surprise. They dearly had not expected to meet 
an enemy in their path here. 

On the 29th the vanguard of the Sasona had a 
Buccesaful fight with the French at Nouart, and the 
day after the Meuse army gained the most important 
victory of Beaumont, which decided the fete of 
M'Mahon's army. It was here where Failly allowed 
himself to be completely surprised by the advancing 
Germans, and where M'Mahon showed that the lesson 

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Men who have made the 

of Worth had been taught him in vain. Yet FaiUy 
has not been called before a court-martial, and 
M'Mahon sits in the presidential chair of France, 
whilst poor Bazaine, who at least has shown himself 
vastly superior in every respect to these men, after 
languishing in prison, is an exile with tarnished 
honour. The French are indeed a queer people. 

A few days after, on the ever-memorable Ist of 
September, 1870, Crown Prince Albert gloriously com- 
pleted at Sedan what he had ao brilliantly initiated 
at Beaumont 

On the 4th of September the prince went to King 
William's head-quarters general at Vendresse, where 
the old warrior received him with a warm and cordial 
embrace, and, with the heartiest acknowledgment of 
his high deeds at Beaumont and Sedan, presented 
to him the rare distinction of the Iron Cross of the 
first class. Prince Albert also received the warm 
congratulations of General Moltke upon the brilliant 
manner in which he had carried out the conceptions 
of the great strategist. It was on this occasion that 
the distinctive name of " Army of the Meuse " was 
given to the several corps combined under the 
prince's chief command. 

On the 5th of September the Germans moved once 
more forward upon the French capital Before Prince 
Albert left, he went to express his warm regretful 
feelings of sympathy to poor Marshal M'Mahon 
who was lying grievously wounded in Sedan. The 
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New German Empire. 

Btatement, said to have been made by the wounded 
French marshal on the occasion, that he had intended 
on the Ist of September to break in through the 
direction of Montm^y, instead of Mezi^res, ae had 
been erroneously thought at Gennan head-quarters, 
cannot be discussed here. It would be travelling 
beyond our record ; and the avowed sketchy nature 
of these brief memoirs must necesaarUy preclude all 
attempts of the kind. 

On ike forward march on Paris there occurred, on 
tiie 9th of September, the sad catastrophe of Laon, 
where a maddened Frendi artillery sergeant, Henriot 
by name, treacherously blew up the powder magazine 
in the duly surrendered citadel, killing and wounding 
thereby about one hundred Germans and some three 
htindred of his own countrymen. 

On the 19th of September, 1870, the Meuee army 
took up its position in the great iron zone of in- 
closure thrown round Paris by Moltke. The right ' 
wing of the Meuse army, formed by the 4th corps, 
embraced the western part of Paris, from Chatou, 
Bezons, ArgenteuU, Epinay, Pierrefitte, to the ridge of 
the high road from St Denis to Luzarches ; the guards 
extended from Stains, over Dugny, Le Bourget, and 
Blanc- Mesnil, to Aulnay ; the left wing (the Saxons), 
from Sevran, over Sivry, Cliehy, and Montfermeil, to 

The Crown Prince of Saxony took up bis head- 
quarters at Grand Tremblay, where they remained 

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132 Men who have made the 

till the 8th of October, when they were transferred 
to Maigency. 

Prince Albert jiistified most fully the high confi- 
dence which King William reposed in him. Through- 
out the long and tedious siege he was never once 
caught napping, and the yigour and decision of his 
character served more than once to nip in the bud 
what might otherwise have proved later on an annoy- 
ance or even a danger to the befiieging army. Thus, 
when the French had, in the morning of the 28th 
of October, succeeded in carrying the village of Le 
Bouiget, and it was represented to the prince that 
the position was barely of sufficient importance to 
justify the expenditure of many human lives upon 
its recapture, he, seeing at once, with his clear 
military mind, how dangerous the place might turn 
out in the end ejiould the enemy establish powerful 
and well-supported batteries there, gave peremptory 
orders to re-take it at any coat — orders which were 
brilliantly executed by the guards, unhappily with 
heavy losa 

On the 30th of November the Saxons and the 
WUrtembergers (who had by this time been added 
to the forces constituting the army of the Meuse) 
had to bear the brunt of the fierce sortie made by 
General Ducrot. About 1,000 Saxons and 1,500 
WUrtembergers fell, killed and wounded, in that most 
hotly-contested encounter, which still left the import- 
ant positions of Brie and Champigny in the hands of 

New German Empire. 133 

the French. This was the so-called first battle of 

Two days after, on the 2nd of December, Ducrot 
made his second great effort to break through the 
beeaeging lines. It was on this occasion that the 
French general, in French theatrical feshion, parodied 
the Spartan mother's farewell address to her son 
departing for the battle — "With this shield, or on 
this shield " — by a grandiloquent proclamation that 
Paris should see him return victorious, or brought 
back dead I He returned neither victorious nor dead, 
bat in a perfectly satisfactory state of comparative 
physical well-being. The great effort may be said to 
have been doomed to failure from the first, as the 
Crown Prince of Saxony was not only fully prepared 
to receive the onset of the enemy, but had even been 
beforehand with the French, and had already re- 
captured Brie and Champigny before they came out. 
But the French s<yrtie en masse had been planned 
with great military skill notwithstanding, and the 
French fought most bravely, as the great losses 
suffered by the Grcrmans amply showed. One Saxon 
re^ment alone lost- nearly forty officers and nine 
hundred men in the fight ! 

The attempts made from the 20th to the 25th of 
December proved equally fruitless. 

On the 27th of December Mont Avron was bom- 
barded, and on the 30th the works erected by the 
French were destroyed by Prince Albert's troops. 


134 Men who have made the 

On the IStli of January Prince Albert attended the 
proclamation of the new Genuan Empire, when the 
new emperor bestowed upon him the high Ordre 
pour le M&rite, with oak leaves. The day after, 
the artillery of the 4th corps, under the prince's 
orders, aided General Kirchbach's 5th corps in re- 
pulsing Trochu's last desperate attempt to break 

On the 9th of March the army of the Meuse and 
the third army, up to Uiis date led by the Crown 
Prince of Prussia and Germany, were joined together, 
and the chief command over the whole force before 
Paris iutrusted to the hands of Crown Prince Albert 
of Saxony, who took up his bead-quarters at Com- 
pi^gue, where his forty-third birthday was celebrated 
on the 23rd of April with jousts and quadrilles on 
horseback, and other similar nulitary rejoicings and 

Prince Albert had to keep his eyes open during 
the troublous days of the Commime and the fierce 
struggle between the latter and the Versailles govern- 
ment. On the 17th of May he was forced to retrans- 
fer his head-quarters from Compi^^e to Margency, to 
be nearer the scene of the actual conflict 

On the 28th of May he received, the second time 
within four months, the news of the capture of 

On the 9th of June he set out on his return to 
Germany. He received most hearty welcome from 

New German Empire. 185 

the people of Berlin on the day of the triumphal entiy, 
when the emperor bestowed upon Tiinn the rare dis- 
tinction of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross. 

On the 11th of July he held his triumphal entry 
into Dresden, where he received the staff of a field- 
marshal general of the German empire, as has 
already been stated. 

After the death of King John, his father, on tjie 
29th of October, 1873, he ascended the throne of the 
kingdom of Saxony. 

Now a few words about the future. It wodd be 
a singular misapprehension of the political situation 
of the present to believe it at all likely that the 
military career of a general like King Albert can 
be at an end. He will have to appear in the field 
again sooner or later. The question may seem of 
some importance, then, whether he has ever frankly 
accepted the result of the war of 1866. 

There are many people in Prussia, even among 
the officers of the army, who seem at least to doubt 
the absolute sincerity of the present King of Saxony 
in his submission to the lead of Prussia. They vnll 
not believe that the bitter antagonist of 1866, the 
man who then threw the whole ardour of his soul 
into the contest with Prussia, can have altogether 
dropped and forgotten his former intensely hostile 
feelings, and taken instead to a frank and sincere 
friendship d toute ^reum for his former foea 

There is to be found in the history of Saxony an 


Men who have made the 

awkward episode — in 1813, at the battle of Leipzig, 
when the Saxons went over in a body from the 
French to the German camp in the midst of the 
fight. It may be called over and over again a daring 
deed of unconquerable patriotism that they did so ; 
still there is always something revolting to the moral 
feeling in an act of treachery. If the Saxons had 
boldly declared before the battle that they would 
no longer consent to be led into the fight against 
their own feUow-countr3anen, the matter would have 
stood very differently. But to wait till the battle 
was fairly engt^ed, and then to go over to the other 
side, may be defended, indeed, upon the score of 
prudence, or rather of serpent wisdom. But before 
the forum of conscience it must be condemned aa 
a most immoral act notwithstanding. 

That the then King of Saxony had no direct con- 
nection with this act of treachery of his army 
seems to have been pretty conclusively established 
at the time. Personally he remained faithful to the 
fallen man whose fortunes he had shared in the 
times of his phenomenal prosperity. Still he did 
not altogether escape what I, in this particular 
instance, feel disposed to call the brand of calumny. 
There were people unbelieving enough in his sincerity 
to impute to him a crafty calculation to secure a 
friendly footing in both camps. 

Be tiiis as it may, however, to return to the present 

King of Saxony, there were not few, it appears, who 


Neio German Empire. 137 

looked Buspicioufily upon the daogerous delay which 
occurred in the attack of the Saxon corps in the 
battle of Gravelotte. The lat brigade of the Prus- 
sian guards had made desperate attempts to cany 
the key of the enemy's position at St. Privat ; but 
the French fire had proved too miirderous. The 
Saxony artillery, which was expected to come up 
from Roncourt, to take the French positions in flank, 
did not come up for hours, it is said, and the 
Prussian guards had a most anxious time of it 

He who remembers how the French at the Alma, 
exposed to a murderous Russian artillery fire, felt 
much inclined to quarrel with us for our apparent 
delay in coming efiectively to tiieir aid, and how 
the aides-de-camp of the French commander were 
riding up to the English lines shouting, "Mais 
Dieu de dieitx, que /aitea-vous done, vous autres ? 
Vous ne voyez done pas qu'on now* Scrase ! " — he 
who remembers this, I say, will easily understand 
also the impatient feelings of the Prussian guards 
before St. Privat ; and will not find it altogether 
inexplicable, perhaps, that a momentary doubt should 
have taken possession of some minds whether the 
Crown Prince of Saxony might not be meditating 
a coup de Leipzig. 

I, for one, feel most fully convinced that anything 
more absolutely unfounded could not well be conceived. 
Tet I have heard the assertion made, and in more 
than one quarter. The explanation of the delay in 

Men who have made the 

the appearance of the Saron artilleiy on the field is 
very aimple. The wood between Malancourt and 
Roncourt was in the hands of the French, nrho had to 
be driven out first, before the Saxon artillery could 
take up ita proper position behind Roncourt This 
was accomplished at last by two battalions of the 7th 
in&ntry, led on by Colonel Abendroth and Captain 
BrezeckL So soon as the wood had been taken, 
sixteen Saxon batteries took the French position in 
Sank, and soon after the Prussian guards and the 
Saxon grenadiers combined carried St Privat in 
right good style. 

The least shadow of a foundation for the grave im- 
putation insinuated by some upon the present King 
of Saxony's secret contingent intentions on the day 
of Gravelotte may therefore fairly be dismissed. 

Still, on the other hand it would certainly be going 
too far to claim for King Albert any very warm and 
sincere feeling for the new German empire and for 
the emperor. King Albert and his brother George — 
the latter, perhaps, still more than the former — con- 
tinue to the present day Saxon particularists, 
omitting no opportunity, fitting or unfitting, to show 
that they are but lukewarmly-inclined towards the 
empire, and that they are always ready to go in for 
the defence of their reserved rights and privileges, 
both real and fancied. 

King Albert continues to the present the very 

warm friend of the Austrian emperor, and, in the 

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New German Empire. 139 

event of certain contingencies and complicationB, it 
might not be altogether wise, perhaps, to intrust 
this very hot Austrian and Romaniat, and warm 
admirer of Beust and his most fatal anti-German 
policy, with the command of the Saxon portion of 
the great German army. At least, this seems to be 
the feeling in more than one German military circle 
in which the writer of this memoir ha£ had occasion 
to move. 

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Men who ham. made the 


At the time when the Franco-Gennan war of 1870- 
71 broke out, the Prussian army numbered only 
one field-marshal general, to wit, old Father Wrangel, 
and one master-general of ordnance, to wit, Prince 
Charles, the only now surviving brother of the 
present emperor of Germany. 

On tiie 28th of October, 1870, the Crown Prince 
and Prince Frederick Charles were raised to the 
rank of field-marshal general On the 16th of June, 
1871, the great Moltke was invited to shed additional 
lustre upon the highest rank and position in the army 
by joining his own name to the glorious list. Prince 
Albert, a younger brother of the emperor, was at 
the same time named colonel-general of cavalry, 
with the rank of field-marshal in the army (he died 
on the 14th of October, 1872). On the 11th of 
July, 1871, the present King of Saxony received the 
marshal's hAton. 

The rank of field-marshal general has been bestowed 
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New German Empire. 141 

also by the emperor-kiug upon Generals Steinmetz 
and Hervarth von Bittenfeld, with date of the 8th of 
April, 1871 ; upon General Roon at the end of the 
year 1872, and, lastly, upon General Manteuffel and 
Prince Frederick of the Netherlands. 

Field-Marshal Herwarth von Bittenfeld is a scion 
of the ancient noble house of the Herwarths von 
Hohenbui^, an old Catholic family of WUrtemberg. 
The grand&ther of the field-marshal seceded to the 
Protestant faith in the first part of the 18th cen- 
tury, and took service in the Prussian army. He fell, 
bravely fighting at the head of his regiment (Prince 
of Wied), in the murderous battle of Kolin. One of 
his sons fell in the disastrous battle of Jena, 1806, 
whilst the other son, the father of the field-marshal 
and of General Hans (John) toq Bittenfeld, was 
grievously wounded the same day at Auerstadt. He 
recovered, however, and died afterwards at Berlin as 
general, in 1.832. 

Charles Eberhard Herwarth von Bittenfeld, lie 
subject of this memoir, was bom on the 4th of 
September, 1796, at Grosswerther, in the Prussian 
province of Saxe. At the age of fifteen he entered 
the then so-called normal infantry battalion in the 
simple capacity of a private soldier (15th of October, 
1811). The year after, he was made ensign, and on 
the 21st of February, 1813, second lieutenant 

At the outbreak of the war of 1813, the second 
regiment of the foot guards was formed, Herwarth's 


Men who have made the 

battalion being one of the constituent parts. The 
young ofBcer gained some distinction in the campaign 
of 1813, and more especially in 1814, when he was 
present at the storming of Montmartre, on the 30th of 
March, and took two French guns near the village of 

After the definitive conclusion of peace in 1815, 
lieutenant Herwardi acted as adjutant up to 1821, 
when he attained his captaincy. It took him fourteen 
years to move up another step in the army, so that 
his advancement could not be caUed very rapid. It 
wa£ on the 30th of March, 1835, that he was trans- 
ferred as major to the Landwehr infantry regiment 
of the guard (reserve), with whom he joined in the 
Kalisch manoeuvres that same year. Twelve years 
after, on the 27th of March, 1847, he was made lieu- 
tenant-colonel and commander of the Ist regiment 
of foot guards, having previously held the temporary 
command of the Emperor Francis regiment. 

In 1849 he attained his full colonelcy, and the 
year after the command of the 16th infantry brigade 
was conferred upon him. 

When, somewhat later on, the signs of the times 
seemed to point unmistakably to war with Austria, 
Herwarth received the command of the combined 
brigade of the division Benin, concentrated at 
Kreuznach in anticipation of the event — which after 
all did not take place, the whole affair ending in 
smoke and in the disgrace of Olmiztz. 


New German Empire. 

Colonel Herwarth exchanged the command of the 
combined brigade for that of the Prussian garrison 
of Frankfort-on-the-Maine. 

On the 23rd of March, 1852, the king made him 
major-general ; and two years after, the highly import- 
ant position of governor of the fortress of Mayence 
was introsted to him. In 1856 he took the command 
of the 7th division of the Pruasian army. Two 
years after he was made lieutenant-general, and 
appointed to the inspection of the Austrian con- 
tingent of the German federal army. 

In 1860 he was promoted to the command of the 
7th corps of the Prussian army (the Westphalians), 
which he led the year after in the great autumn 
manCBnvrea on the Rhine. As a special mark of hia 
satisfaction with the excellent state of his corps, 
King William bestowed upon General Herwarth von 
Bittenfeld the chiefship of the 1st Westphalian 
infantry regiment. No. 13. 

On the 27th of March, 1863, Herwarth von 
Bittenfeld attained the rank of general of infantry. 

In 1864 he led a division of his corps in the 
Danish war, and after the transfer of Prince 
Frederick Charles to the chief command of the 
allied Austrian and Prusaian forces, vice Field- 
Marshal Wrangel, retired from service, he had the 
command of the Prussian corps intrusted to his 

After the lamentable fiasco of the London Cou- 


Men who have made the 

ference, and ita final ending in smoke, the 25th of 
June, Herwarth Tesolved to take the Island of Alsen. 
He made his dispositions entirely upon his own 
personal responsibility, but with such transcendent 
skill and such absolute foresight of every possible 
contingency, that the operation was triumphantly 
accomplished, 29th of June, 1864. This capture of 
Alsen stands forth brilliantly as one of the rarest 
deeds of arms in the history of war. It would of 
itself suffice to establish Herwarth von Bittenfeld's 
cUum to the name and fame of a great commander 
in the field. 

After the conclusion of the peace of Vienna, 
Herwarth von Bittenfeld was appointed to the 
supreme command in the Elbe duchies. He took 
up his residence at Kiel He had by no means 
an easy position there, as he found himself brought 
constantly into collision with the fooUsh Pretender 
of Augustenburg, whose overweening conceit, joined 
to his blind reliance upon Austria and the Frankfort 
clique, imder the leadership of Beust, made it a 
matter of extreme difficulty to keep on terms of 
even common courtesy with him. 

Herwarth did not see the last of it, however. 
Even before the conclusion of the convention of 
Gastein, in 1865, he was recalled &om the duchies, 
and appointed to the command of the 8th corps of 
the Prussian army, with head-quarters at Coblentz. 

In 18C6, when General Moltke, in conformity with 

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New German Empire. 

his great principle, to march in separate columns, but 
strike the decisive blow with united forces, formed 
three distinct armies for the projected Bohemian 
campaign, the distinguished honour of leading one of 
these armies, to which Schlotheim and Brandenstein 
afterwards gave the distinctive name of the army 
of the Elbe, was conferred upon General Herwarth 
von Bittenfeld. 

The army of the Elbe numbered from 40,000 to 
43,000 effectives. The Auatro-Saxon army, which 
had the special task assigned to it to defend the line 
of the Iser, and interpose between the junction of 
the Elbe army with the first army under Prince 
Frederick Charies, exceeded this number by nearly 
70 per cent 

The rapidity of Herwarth's movements seems to 
have disconcerted the Austrian general, Clam-GaJlas, 
under whose chief command the Saxon corps tmder 
Prince Albert had also been placed. Already as 
early as the 26th of June the Prussian general made 
his appearance with part of his forces at Htihner- 
wasser, a small place in the Bunzlau district m 

The Austrian brigade Leiningen, forming the left 
wing of the Austro-Saxon Iser army, pushed forward 
from MUnchengiUtz, had taken up a very strong posi- 
tion here. Count Gondrecourt, the adlatus of 01am- 
Gallas (and subsequently his successor), commanded 
in person. 

VOL. II. ol^ilizedbyGOOgle 

146 Men who have made the 

The fight commenced on the morning of the 26th 
of June with a moat vigorous attack of the Prussians 
upon the wood situate before Hllhnerwasser, in the 
direction of the frontier. The Austrians were, after 
hard fighting, driven from the wood into the small 
town, and from there again into the open beyond, 
the Prussians having by noon succeeded in taking up 
an advanced position in the direction of Weisswasser 
and MUnchengratz. In the evening Count Gondre- 
oourt made several desperate attempts to dislodge 
the Prussians, which ended, however, in his total 
discomfiture, his forces being driven back across the 
Toperberg and beyond Upper Gruppay. 

There was now no further obstacle in the way 
of an advance of the Elbe army upon MUnchengratz, 
to effect its jimction there with the army under 
Prince Frederick Charles. 

It must be admitted that Benedek's strangely con- 
fused and contradictory orders {for which the general 
was perhaps not altogether responsible, however, as 
he was driven nearly to his wits' ends by the emperor 
aud his military cabinet's constant stupid interference 
with his plans and projects) placed Clam-Gallas and 
Albert of Saxony in an extremely difficult position. 
They had had orders to hold the Iser line to the last 
extremity ; yet barely had the news of the disaster of 
Huhnerwasser reached the ears of Benedek, when 
that general at once gave the opposite order — to wit, 
that Clam-Gallas and the Saxons should at once 

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New German Empire. 147 

retire upon Gitschin, a most difficult operation, which 
they were called upon to execute in the face of a 
victorioufllj advancing foe. 

They had no choice, however. So they accepted 
the battle at MUnchengratz. 

This small town, of about four thousand souls, 
lies also in the Bunzlau distiict, on the left bank of 
the Iser, on the Kralap and Tumau Railway line, 
some seven EngtiBh miles south-west of Turnau. 

The corps of Clsm-Gallas and the Saxons under 
Albert stood here opposed to a portion of the army 
of Prince Frederick Charles, and part of the former 
under Herwarth von Bittenfeld. The latter had to 
take the Kloster village, the former Musky Hill and the 
vill^e of the same name. Herwarth crossed the Iser 
above MUnchengratz on a pontoon bridge, stormed 
the village, climbed up the steep heights of the 
Austro-Saxon position before MUnchengitLtz, and 
almost entirely turned the corps of Clam-Gallas ; 
whilst Prince Frederick Charles carried Musky HUl, 
the villages of Musky and Dneboch, and the ruins 
of Bossin. There remained but little more fighting 
to be done to occupy Milnchengratz, and to complete 
the junction of the two Prussian armies and the 
capture of the line of the Iser. The Austrian losses 
were very heavy. Fourteen hundred unwounded 
prisoners fell into the hands of the victors, who paid 
for their great success the comparatively small price 
of some 330 men killed and wounded, almost equally 
L 2 '>" 

148 Men who have made the 

distributed between the first army and the army of 
the Elbe. 

In the decisive battle of Koniggratz, Herwarth 
voQ Bitteufeld played a most prominent part It has 
been said, indeed, by some critics, that in this battle 
he had not carried out thoroughly Moltke's instruc- 
tions, and that the lack of vigour shown by him had 
subsequently made possible the escape of Benedek's 
beaten army. It is not easy to see how these critics 
could support this charge against the marshal were 
they seriously called upon to prove it. Herwarth von 
Bitteufeld acted with the utmost vigour throughout 
that hot day of the 3rd of July. By storming the 
villages of Problus and Prim (or Przim), he absolutely 
crushed the Austrian left wing. It seems to me that 
all these charges brought against different generals 
and troops may in the end find their answer in 
Frederick Charles's alleged precipitate opening of 
the ball two hours sooner than the other leaders had 
been led to expect 

Be this as it may. King William showed bis appre- 
ciation of the general's great services on the 3rd of 
July, by bestowing upon him even in the evening of 
that glorious day the high distinction of the Order of 
the Black Eagle, a sad consolation, after all, for the 
loss of a dearly-beloved son who fell in the attack 
on Problus. 

After the conclusion of peace with Austria, General 
Herwarth von Bittenfeld was placed A la suite of the 

New Geiinan Empire. 

secund regiment of foot guards. He resumed his 
command of the 8th corps. 

Iq 1870 the king intrusted to him the highly re- 
sponsible and most important charge of governor- 
general on the Rhine and of all the western provinces 
of the kingdom. He proved himself worthy of the 
high trust reposed in him, by organizing with the 
utmost vigour and rapidity, and with consummate 
skill, an effective defence of the land placed under 
his protecting care. Happily, the war took a 
very different turn ; bat the excellent defensive 
measures taken on the Rhine by Herwarth von 
Bitteofeld excited the admiration of all men able to 
judge of such matters ; and they would no doubt 
have brilliantly stood the test of an actual French 

Herwarth von Bitteufeld had lost a son in 1866, at 
Problus, as we have seen. In 1870 he was doomed to 
suffer other most grievous losses. A second son feU 
at VionviUe, a third at St. Privat, whilst a fourth was 
grievously wounded at Courcelles. Military glory is 
an expensive luxury, and the price to be paid for it is 
occasionally most bitter. 

On the 8th of April, 1871, Herwarth von Bittenfeld 
was finally raised to the highest rank in the army, 
and permitted to rest at last on his well-earned 

He took up his residence at Bonn, where he, cele- 
brated, on the 15th of October, 1871, in rare bodily 

150 Men who have made the 

and meutal vigour, the jubilee of the sixtieth anniver- 
saxy of his taking service in the army. Congratu- 
lations poured in on him from all sides on this festive 

The field-marshal, who is now in his seventy- 
ninth year, continues still in vigorous health. His 
younger brother, John, who is eeventy-five, is aUo 
still a healthy, active man. He retired from the 
service some time since, as general of infantry. In 
1866 he was military governor of the province of 
Saxony, He has taken up his residence iu the 
Prussian capital. 

A cousin of the two, Frederick Adrian, who is also 
seventy-four, retired from the service some time ago, 
as general of infantry. Up to 1870 he was governor 
of Konigsberg. He now lives at Merseburg. 

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New German Empire. 


Charlis Fbedebick ton Steinhetz was bom at 
Eisenach, on the 24th of December, 1796. He was 
a mere youth of sixteen when the momentous events 
of 1812-13 called him, along with thousands upon 
thousands of other sons of Germany standing eqiially 
on the very threshold of youth, under the glorious 
banner of liberation, unfurled to free the great father- 
land from the vilest and most crushing yoke an 
insolent conqueror had ever yet in the history of 
the world attempted to fasten upon a noble people. 

Having been originfdly destined and educated for 
the military career, he entered the Prussian army 
as lieutenant His daring bravery gained him the 
rare distinction of the Order of the Iron Cross 

When peace was at last concluded, in 1815, young 
Steinmetz eagerly, and assiduoudy took up again 
the pursuit of his military stadiea, interrupted by 
the waz. His advancement .in the. service, was by 

, ii.;,Googk' 

152 Men who have made the 

no means rapid, as we find him in 1835 still a 
simple captain, in command of a company of grena- 
diers in the Emperor Francis regiment 

A few years after he was promoted to the rank 
of major, and placed in command of the DUsseldorf 
Landwehr battalion of the guards. This position 
he exchanged soon after for the command of the 
reserve battalion of the guards, then in garrison 
at Spandau. 

In 1848 we lind him lieutenant-colonel in command 
of the 2nd regiment of infantry. At the head of 
two battalions of this regiment he took his fair share 
in the Berlin street fight of the 18th of March. 
He afterwards went with his regiment to the war 
in Schleswig-Holstein. 

After the armistice of Malmo, Colonel Steinmetz 
was appointed Governor of the Berlin Cadet-house, 
and promoted to the rank of major-general He 
commanded for a time a brigade of the guards, then 
a division in the army, being raised to the rank of 
lieutenant-general, until he was finally named general 
of infantry, and had the command of the 5th Prussian 
corps bestowed upon him, with head-quarters at 

It was only in 1866, when he was near seventy 
years old, that the first real opportunity was aflbrded 
him to justify the high trust reposed in him. His 
5th corps formed part of the second army, under the 
command of the Crown Princp. With this corps. 

New German Empire. 

aided only by a brigade of tlie Cth corps, General 
Steinmetz defeated successively at Nachod, Skalitz, 
and Schweinscbadel, the 6tti Austrian corps under 
Ramming, the 8 th under the Archduke I^eopold, and 
the 4th iinder Feetetics, taking &om them two ban- 
uers, two standards, eleven guns, and six thousand 
unwounded prisonera Altogether the losses inflicted 
upon these three corps, which constituted nearly the 
half of Benedek's army, were most cnuihing ; and 
it may well be said that the three days of Nachod, 
Skalitz, and Schweinschadel, so disastrous to Austria, 
prepared and initiated as it were the great final defeat 

The battles of Nachod, Skalitz, and SchweinschMel 
have been sufficiently recorded already in the memoir 
of the Crown Prince. The meed of glory justly 
claimed there for the royal commander of the second 
anny does not detract, however, from the high merit 
of General Steinmetz, which was indeed most fuUy 
acknowledged by the noble chief himself, who de- 
manded and obtained for the general the rare dis- 
tinction of the Order of the Black Eagle, gained 
on the field of battle. 

After these hard days Steinmetz and his corps 
were placed in the reserve, so that they took no 
active share in the battle of Koniggratz. Steinmetz 
was one of the generals upon whom the gratitude 
of the king and nation I>estowed a handsome dotation 
after the conrliifion of peace, 

Digilized by Google 

154 Men tcho have made the 

Soon after the tennination of the war of 1866, 
he attended the Crown PriDce on his visit to St 
Petersburg, where the Emperor Alexander 11. be- 
stowed upon him the Order of Ale^mder Newskji 
in brilliants. 

In 1867 General Steinmetz was elected a member 
of the constituent assembly of the North Gennan 
Confederation. He represented the district of ZliUi- 
chau-Krossen. He took his seat on the Conservative 
benches, but did not join very actively in the discus- 
sion of the business before the assembly. He was 
also subsequently elected a member of the first Diet 
of the Confederation. 

In the Franco-German war of 1870, Steinmetz 
was intrusted with the CMnmand of the first army, 
which consisted of the Ist corps under General 
Bentheim, the 7th corps under General Zastrow, the 
8th corps under General Goben, and the Ist and 
3rd cavalry divisions. The Ist corps was, however, 
at first retained in Germany (along with the 2nd 
and 6th), as the intentions of Austria looked suffi- 
ciently doubtful then to justify every possible measure 
of precaution against an Austrian suiprise. Subse- 
quently, about mid-August, when this threatening 
danger might be considered at an end, the 1st corps 
joined Steinmetz's army before Metz, together with 
the division Kummer, and (temporarily) the Meck- 
lenburg division. 

The first great feat of arms which fell to the 
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New German Empire. 

share of the army under Steinmetz was the cap- 
ture of the heights of Spicheren, near Saarbrlieken, 
and the crushing defeat of a French army of_ 
four dlTisions, under command of General Frossard. 
This battle was fought on the 6th of August, on 
the same day as the battle of Worth. 

Frossard's corps, supported by nearly the whole 
of two more French divisions, and by a most 
powerful artillery, had taken up a strong position 
on the Spicheren heights and in Spicheren wood. 

The 7th German corps was on the morning of the 
6th of August stationed at Guichenbach, some six 
EngUsh miles from Saarbrilcken on the German side. 
About noon the cavalry division of Kheinhabcn 
passed through the town of Saarbrlicken, which had 
been evacuated by the French. The 14th division 
of infantry, under command of General Kameke, 
followed. The Germans having passed through the 
town, and issuing from the other side, were received 
by a warm artillery and infantry fire. 

General Kameke at once ordered the attack on 
the heights. The German troops had to make their 
way to the foot of the hiUs, across an open which 
afforded no protection whatever t^ainst the fierce 
French fire firom the heights ; notwithstanding which 
formidable obstacle, they advanced steadily and with 
the utmost intrepidity from the Winterberg southward 
upon the steep heights held by the French. 

They made some progress up to three o'clock in 


156 Men who liave made the 

the afteraoun, although fighting against fearful odds. 
At last the thunder of the cannons brought portions 
of the diviaiona of Barnekow and Sttllpuagel to the 
aid of the desperately struggling, sadly overmatched 
14th division. 

General Kameke now tried to take the French in 
the left flank, moving down upon them over Stiring. 
This attempt was frustrated by the French. Fortu- 
nately General Goben arrived with further reinforce- 
ments, and took the command. 

At this time the French had, indeed, been driven 
from Spicheren wood, but powerful reserves coming 
up, the Prussians had to give way again for a time. 

Soon after six o'clock in the evening, the French 
left wing began to press hard upon the Prussians 
round Stiring, when the arrival of a few regiments 
of Brandenburg infantry, belonging to the second 
army (Prince Frederick Charles), changed the face 
of affairs, the Prussians now succeeding at last in 
carrying the rocky woo<l-covered declivities of the 

Spicheren wood was taken once more, and General 
Goben ordered the final attack upon the top of 
the Spicheren, hilL The 6th division succeeded in ■ 
getting two batteries along a mountain path up to 
this top, and the assault was crowned with com- 
plete success. 

It was at this period that General Steinmetz 
arrived on the field of action. He completed what 

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New German Empire. 

his great lieutenant, Groben, had so gloriously begun. 
The defeated French were forced to retreat. 

At first Frossard retired in good order. He in- 
tended to fall back upon St. Avoid, where due pre- 
parations had been made for such a contingency. 
But Steinmetz rapidly pushed forward the 13th 
division (GlUmer), which cleverly managed to inter- 
pose between the French general and St. Avoid. 

Complete demoralization set in now in Froesard's 
corps. The orderly retreat degenerated into some- 
thing very like wild flight, so that important military 
magazines, the camp of an entire French division, 
numerous pieces of artillery, a complete pontoon 
train, 10,000 woollen rugs, some 200 tons of pro- 
visions and tobacco, &c., were allowed to fall into 
the hands of the victorious Germans. Two thousand 
five hundred unwounded French prisoners were 
taken by the Prussians. 

The French had fifty-two strong battalions in the 
fight, supported by a most powerful artillery. The 
Germans had only twenty-seven battalions, with the 
artillery of a single division ; besides which, the 
French had in their favour the immense advantage 
of an extremely strong position. Yet the Germans 
carried the day. Their losses were fearfully heavy ; 
215 officers and 5,034 men killed and wounded — an 
enormous percentage upon the numbers engaged. 

The French losses in killed and wounded may be 
estimated at about 6,000, as Frossard admitted a 


Men who Jiave made the 

Io38 in his own special corps alone of 270 officers 
and 4,000 men. 

The battle of Spicheren gave rise at the time to 
considerable controversy and comment It was main- 
tained that Steinmetz had allowed the fight to be 
engaged in in the very teeth of strict instructions 
to the contrary received from General Moltke, who, 
it was said, had intended to cut Frossard's corps 
off by a series of strategic manosuvres. 

In times of excitement the most eztraordiDary 
statement will pass current and find believers. I, for 
one, am convinced that there was no foundation what- 
ever or truth for the serious imputation made upon 
the old general, that he had deliberately and of malice 
prepense set at naught an explicit command &om 
head -quarters. 

Nor can I believe in the other version of the story, 
which was started at the time, to wit, that Kameke 
had attacked the French position without orders, 
and that Goben, instead of breaking off the attack, 
had continued it against express orders. Both 
Kameke and Goben have been brought iip in too 
good a school of military discipline and subordination 
ever to allow the excitement of the moment to run 
away with their discretion. , 

I think these stories had their origin at the time 
chiefly in the regret naturally felt at the fearful losses 
suffered by the Germans in this desperate battle. 

The French had apparently intended to defend a 

New German Empire. 159 

carefully-prepared position on the French Nied ; but 
on the 11th of August, the fifth day after the battle 
of Spicheren, they retreated to the other bank of the 
Moselle at Metz, where they took up a new position 
under the protection of the fortress. Steinmetz 

On the 14th of August, the first army under 
General Steinmetz occupied the following positions : — 

The 1st corps, 1st division, was placed at Cour- 
celles-Chauas)', on the road leading from Metz to 
St. Avoid ; the second division at Les Etangs, on 
the road leading from Metz to Boulay. 

The 13th division (7th corps) was placed at Dom- 

The 8th corps was placed in reserve at Varize, near 
Vionville. The 3rd cavalry division had its station 
on the right wing, at St. Barbe ; the first cavalry 
division, on the left wing, at Frontigny. 'ITie 14th 
division and the 18th division, belonging both to the 
second army, under Prince Frederick Charles, were 
leaning on the left wing of the first army. 

Well, in the afternoon of the 14th of August, the 
vanguard of the first army thought there were signs 
of an intended move of the French encamped under 
the walls of Metz. 

Now, as it was a matter of the utmost importance 
for the Germans to keep the French in their actual 
position before Metz until Prince Frederick Charles 
could move upon their line of retreat, Steinmetz at 


Men who have made the. 

once gave orders to the brigade Goltz to attack the 
rear-guard of Decaen's departing corps (which . had 
fonneriy been commanded by Bazaine). 

The attack was made with such spirit and deter- 
mination that the corps was compelled to halt, and 
to make &ODt. Farts of Frossard's corps had also to 
join in repelling the Prussian onset Immediately 
General GlUmer was sent forward witii the brigade 
Osten-Sacken, to support Goltz. Eameke and Wrangel 
joined in the fray on the left wing, and the final result 
was that the French had to abandon for the nonce all 
notion of moving away from their encampment. 

The French corps Ladmirault had meanwhile 
endeavoured to make an impression upon the right 
wing of the 1st corps, but the assailants were met 
by General Manteufiel at the head of his reserves 
with such determination, that they had also to retire 
ultimately behind the fortifications. The result of 
this battle of Courcelles was, that Prince Frederick 
Charles had an additional day given him to bring his 
army up, which he turned to most exceUent account. 

On the 18th of August, Steinmetz and the army 
under his conunand again took a prominent share in 
the glory of Gravelotte. 

Steinmetz joined afterwards in the siege of Metz. 
If the least reliance could ever be placed upon camp 
reports and military gossip, one might be led to 
believe that General Steinmetz had given offence at 
head-quarters by acting too much upon his own 
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New German Empire. 

impulse, instead of yielding proper obedience to 
superior orders. 

Other reports, more likely to have some foimdation 
in truth, would simply have it that the obstinate old 
man (seventy -four) could not be brought to see 
that he owed obedience to Prince Frederick Charles, 
to whom the cotmuand of the siege of Hetz had been 

Be this as it may, however, it was suddenly dis- 
covered at head-quarters that Russian neutrality 
might after aU not be implicitly relied upon, and 
that it would only be a wise measure of precaution 
to send an energetic and skilful chief back to Prussia, 
to watch over the safety of the frontier. General 
Steinmetz was the very man for it, aa the king said. 
So the old man was graced with the high title and 
full power of Governor-General of Posen and Silesia 
— and sent back to Germany. 

The new Governor-General of Poaen and Silesia 
must somehow have seen through the matter after- 
wards, for he repeatedly tendered his resignation to 
the king. 

It was, however, only after the conclusion of peace, 
on the 8th of April, 1871, that his majesty granted the 
general's request, bestowing upon him at the same 
time the highest rank in the army — that of field- 
marshal general. 

Field-Marshal Steinmetz also had his share in the 
dotations voted subsequently by parliament and 

^i-"- «,,., Google 

162 Men who have made the 

bestowed by the king. He lives now in Gorlitz, 
Lower Silesia, in the enjoyment still of excellent 

In 1870 he received also once again the high Order 
of the Iron Cross, which he had received first in 1814 
when a mere stripling. He is the only man in the 
Prussian army who can boast of having had bestowed 
upon him, at an interval of nearly sisty years, the two 
classes of the same order. 

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New German Empire. 



Thib is one of the latest of his German and Prussian 
majesty's marshal creations, and, as has indeed been 
the case with every other mark of favour ever 
bestowed upon Manteuffel by the king and his 
predecessor, the one most coldly received and 
most adversely commented upon, not alone by the 
general public, but also in high and low nulitaty 

It is, indeed, altogether diflScult to account for the 
very lai^ measure of apparently groundless popu- 
lar dislike that seems to have fallen to the share 
of this man. Surely one would think that hig very 
distant relationship, or, perhaps, rather his mere 
namesakeship with Otto Theodor von ManteufFel, who 
steered the Prussian state bark, foolishly confided to 
his guidance by King Frederick William IV., right 
under the Caudine Forks of Olmiitz, should not in 
itself be deemed such a very heinous oflfence, and 
that the enjoyment of even the very highest court 

M 2 . Gooylc 

164 Men who have made the 

favour could barely warrant the attempted clouding 
and staining of his name and fame in the estimation 
of the people 

Yet t^e &ct would seem to be so ; for certainly the 
life and the acts and deeds of the man, who has 
throughout his career proved himself a loyal servant 
of his king and his country, afford no patent clue 
to this deep-rooted general hostility which the masses 
bear him, and in which so many persons moving in 
the higher circles of society seem to join with equal 
bitterness — imless it be, perhaps, in some dight 
measure, at least, his action as president of the 
military cabinet, to which reference will be made 
hereafter in the course of this memoir. 

Karl Rochus Edwin, Baron von Manteuffel, was 
bora at Magdeburg on the 24th of February, 1809. 
He was intended and educated for the military 
career. In 1826 he entered the regiment of dra- 
goons of the guard, and he obtained his lieutenancy 
in the same regiment two yeais after. 

Having served fifteen years as a lieuteuant, he was 
promoted to a squadron in 1843. Soon after, he 
became adjutant to Prince Albrecht 

In 1848 his good fortune brought him into personal 
contact with the king. This was in the days of the 
great March rising in BerUn, during which Frederick 
William IV. betrayed the whole deplorable weakness 
of his character. The young cavalry oflScer stood 
manfully by the poor trembling king's side, and 

New German Empire. 165 

tried hard to instil some of his own courage into the 
king's heart 

When the worst was over, the grateftd monarch 
made Manteuffel his personal aide-de-camp : from this 
time forward his fortune was secured. Six years later 
we find him already in full command of the 5th 
regiment of lancers, then in garrisoD at Dtisseldor£ 

As his majesty fiincied he could detect tmder the 
outer shell of Manteuffel's military ru^edness a fine 
talent for diplomacy, the cavalry colonel was in- 
trusted with several diplomatic missions, particularly 
to Vienna, which, it is said, he performed to the 
perfect satisfaction of the king and the government 

In 1857 Major-General Manteuffel was appointed 
to the performance of somewhat delicate and rather 
invidious functions. He was named chief of the so- 
called military cabinet in which capacity he had to 
deal principally with the " personalia " of the army. 
He had to recommend officers for promotion, and to 
propose the removal of officers from active service, &c. 

If we are to judge General Manteuffel's action and 
conduct in this most ticklish position by the results 
of the wars of 1864, 1866, and 1870-71, we shall 
surely feel inclined to believe that he must have been 
guided in his weedings — ruthless, no doubt, more 
particularly regarding the higher ranks of the army — 
by a most sincere and anxious desire to consult the 
truest and best interestd of the country. 

Unluckily for him, people felt little inclined to 


Men who have made the 

believe so at the time ; and even now they will sneer 
at his assertion, apparently founded in fact, however, 
that he had been the first to clearly and thoroughly 
discern Moltke's high geniua, and that he can justly 
claim as his doing the appointment of that distin- 
guished man to the highest place on the general staff 
of the Prussian army. 

There are, indeed, many officers who will fully 
admit the beneficial character of Manteuffel's man- 
agement of the military cabinet ; but they will add, 
with a bitter sneer, that the chief had stopped short 
in his work of salutary weeding, and that, whilst 
he had avowedly removed many incapable and in- 
competent officers from the Prussian active service, 
he had unhappily left himself untouched — the most 
incompetent, the most incapable, the most inefficient 
of all- — which sweeping assertion they will then 
proceed to support by numerous references to the 
patent inefficiency betrayed by the general in the 
ware of 1866 and 1870-71. 

However, the candid historian, who duly examines 
the material placed before him, soon discovers that 
most of these proffered references are not references to 
actual facts, but to more or less baseless and ground- 
less fictions, and that Manteuffel, so far from betray- 
ing gross incapacity, as is so roundly asserted by his 
detractors, has shown himself on several leading 
occasions a most efficient commander in the field. 
At the time of Maiiteuffel'R greatest activity in 


New Qerman Empire. 

the military cabinet, his close connection with the 
high Conservative military party, and his almost 
over-ostentatioualy displayed feudalist and absolutist 
professions and tendencies, joined to his singularly 
inconciliatory, haughty, and arrogant bearing towards 
political opponents, excited against him the bitterest 
and intensest hostility of the whole Liberal party, 
which the circumstance that the prince regent con- 
tinued to show the general the same favour as hia 
brother the king had done before him, was certainly 
not calculated to lessen or appease- 
Thus, in 1858 Manteuffel was made general d la 
suite; and in 1861, after the accession »f King 
William to the throne of Prussia, he was raised to 
the rank of lieutenant-general 

It was about this time that Councillor Twesten, 
one of the leaders of the Liberal party, who, however, 
was not yet much known at the time beyond his 
own circle, published a pamphlet, destiued to become 
temporarily famous, under the title, " What may still 
preserve us." In this pamphlet Twesten, among 
other things, made a sharp direct attack upon 
Manteuffel, whom he qualified as "a disastrously 
fatal man in a disastrously fatal position." 

The chief of the military cabinet felt stung to 
the quick. He sent a fiiend to the bold councillor 
to demand satisfaction for his wounded honour. A 
duel was the consequence, in which poor Twesten 
was wounded. The general had to suffer a short 


168 Men who have made the 

uaprisoninent, but he was left undisturbed in his 
position as chief of the military cabinet. 

In 1863 Bismarck (so it is asserted, at least) turned 
to the best account the gi^t " popularity " — if such 
an expression may be allowed under the cireum- 
atances — which the general was known to enjoy at 
the Hofburg of Vienna, where he certainly was looked 
upon aa a persona gratissima — not a very strange 
or surprising fact, indeed, considering the strong 
pro-Axistrian procUvities which ManteufTel professed 
in common with his cousin Otto Theodor. It is 
said that Manteuffel had a considerable share in 
bringing about the temporary alliance between 
Austria and Prussia against Denmark. 

In the early part of 1864, when signs were be- 
coming apparent of a certain lack of vigour in 
the conduct of the war, the general was sent to 
Vienna to stimulate the Austrian cabinet. He was 
successful in so far, that the occupation of Jutland 
by the alUed forces was resolved upon. 

After the conclusion of peace, when difficulties 
arose between the two good allies, ManteufFel was 
always active in endeavouring to smooth them away. 
The Gastein convention, which postponed for a time 
the inevitable final settlement between Austria and 
Prussia on the field of battle, was in a great measure 
Manteuffel's work. 

From Gastein the general proceeded direct to 

Schleswig. He had been appointed governor of that 


Hew German Empire. 169 

duchy and commander-in-chief of the Prussian army 
of occupation. Bismarck had willed it so. 

The great stateflman, who clearly foresaw the in- 
evitable issue of affairs between Austria and Prussia, 
and was equally conscious of the almost insuperable 
difficulties in his way to convince King William of 
the unavoidable necessity of war with Austria, 
selected Manteuffel, the stanchest Austrophile in 
Prussia, and the man most after Francis Joseph's 
own heart, to represent Prussia in the jointly-con- 
quered, jointly-occupied Elbe duchies, and to try to 
find a modus vivcndi between the joint-occupants. 

There could be no doubt that if even Man- 
teuffel failed in his honest endeavour to find such 
a modus vivendi, the king would take it as the most 
decisive proof of Austria's determination not to come 
to a fair and equitable understanding with Prussia. 
And this conviction once fairly established in King 
William's mind, the minister might hope to convince 
the monarch of the absolute necessity of this war 
from which hia majesty was so sensitively shrinking. 

Manteuffel had a hard stand in Schleswig. Gablenz, 
the Austrian commander in Holstein, had a much 
easier task of it. He might readily enough conciliate 
the Holsteiners and the Augustenburg pretender, 
the more readUy as the policy of Austria pointed to 
the ultimate acknowledgment of the latter as sove- 
reign duke of the two duchies. 

Manteuffel, on the contrary, had to oppose the 

II.;, Google 

Men who have made the 

wishes of the people of Schleswig, which were at 
that time poiutiDg in the same direction. In his 
dealings with the Augustenburg pretender, who, in 
his ineffable conceit, dared to treat Prussia with 
contemptuous disregard, the general had also to 
show the rough side of his character. 

What Bismarck had foreseen came to pass very 
speedily. Manteuffel's eyes were opened to what 
Austria really wanted, and the general, who with all 
his Austrian proclivities had still a very sound foun- 
_dation of Prussian patriotism in him, was rapidly 
cured of his illusions anent the noble and chival- 
rous feelings entertained at the Vienna Hofburg. 

He acted with proper spirit and energy to guard 
the interests of his country. When the Augustenburg 
pretender, feeling secure of the support of Austria, 
Hanover, and Saxony, coolly proceeded to have him- 
self proclaimed duke, on the 14th of October, 1865, 
at Eckemforde, Manteuffcl briefly informed his 
highness, on the 16 th of October, that if he did 
not at once desist from his aggressive proceedings, 
he (the general) would be compelled to have him 

From this time forward the last spurious shade of 
the imaginary entente conliale between the two great 
German powers was gone— irretrievably gone; and 
matters rushed on henceforth irresistibly to the final 
appeal to ordeal by battle. 

When General Gablenz, in violation of the Gastein 

, ii.;,Gooyk' 

New German Empire. 

convention, and in most flagrant encroachment upon 
Prussia's good right, summoned the Holatein Estates 
to assemble in general meeting at Itzehoe on the llth 
of June, 1866, Manteuflfel, by order of his king, 
sent word to Gablenz that, "Austria having chosen 
to tear the Gastein convention asunder, he (Man- 
teuflfel) was resolved to assume the co-government in 
both duchies ; and that he would accordingly march 
into Holstcin with his corps on the 7th of June. 
Upon this Gablenz evacuated Holstcin, taking the 
Augu8t*;nburg pretender away with him. 

On the 7th of June Manteuffel occupied Itzehoe, 
which of course put an end to the intended meeting 
of the Estates. 

On the llth of June Gablenz evacuated Altona, 
and recrossed the Elbe. 

The nice little plan hatched between King George 
of Hanover, the Austrian Gablenz, and the Augua- 
tenburg pretender had been to call the Schleswig- 
Holsteiners to arms, and to march them jointly 
with Gablenz's corps and the Hanoverian army direct 
upon Berlin ! 

Manteuflfel was beforehand with these poor plotters. 
On the 15th of June he entered the kingdom of 
Hanover, and on the 18th he occupied Stade, the 
very place which had been intended for the joint 
gathering of the " three hosts " that were to march 
upon Berlin. He found at Stade large stores of 
munitions of war, &c., which he took iKwsession of. 


172 Men who have made the 

As he was moving rapidly forward. General Gablenz 
retreated precipitately over Harburg to CaaseL 

General Manteuffel was present at the affair of 
Langensalza. He was under the supreme command 
of General Vogel vonFalckenstein, with whom he 
made that marvellous one month's campaign in 
Hesse and Francony, which must always be looked 
upon as the most glorious episode in tlie great 
war of 1866. 

On the 19th of July, 1866, Vogel von Falckenstein, 
who on the 16th had entered the free city of Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, was most 'uoagldierly I and un- 
expectedly recalled from his command, under the 
very colourable pretext, to say the least of it, that 
certain circumstances and contingencies imperatively 
demanded the presence of an energetic Prussian 
governor-general in Bohemia 1 

Manteuffel succeeded Vogel von Falckenstein in 
the command of the array of the Main. It was an 
unlucky advancement for him, as Falckenstein's 
strange recall from the scene of his triumphs was 
by many imputed to Manteuffel's machinations, an 
imputation which must now be considered to have 
been utterly groundless, although it would appear 
that one of the parties most interested in the affair, 
Falckenstein himsdf, believed in it. 

■ Years after, in 1871, when the great dotation 

question was being eagerly and warmly discussed, 

more especially in connection with the share die king 

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New German Empire. 

intended to bestow on Manteuflfel, an injudiciouB 
friend of the general's ventured to allege, in a paper 
sent to tlie Augshurger Allgemeine Zeitung, and 
to the Kreuz Zeitung, among other things, that 
Vogel von Falckenstein had, in 1866, from personal 
hostility to Manteuffel, given the latter no chance of 
exchanging shots, or crossing swords with the 

It became soon patent now to all the world that 
Vogel von Falckenstein had not forgotten 1866, and 
that he retained still his original impression of 
Manteuffel's complicity in his removal, for the article 
in the two journals at once brought old " rough-and- 
ready " into the field in full armoiu: and red-hot 
fighting humour. 

In a brief cavalier missive to the Kreuz Zeitung, 
he said, with a covert sneer, that the writer of the 
Manteuffel laudation was evidently not aware that 
the general had had the occasion given him on the 
day of Kissingen, and the day after, to exchange 
shots with the enemy, and the troops of Manteuffel 
had also been engaged at Langensalza — in the latter 
battle, indeed, not by his {Falckenstein 's) orders. 

To perceive the force of this sneer, it must be 
borne in mind that the days mentioned ranked not 
among the most brilliant achievements of the cam- 
paign of 1866. 

Falckenstein then went on to observe, that if the 
writer of the article in question could succeed by no 

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174 Men toko luive made the 

other means in glorifying General Manteuffel than 
by assailing the reputation of other men, he was 
certainly rendering no good service to the general. 
He (Falckenstein) must call upon the writer to 
produce proof in support of his assertions; and if 
he should feil to do so, he could only look upon 
his production in the light of a paid article, written 
by a hired scribe, and accordingly beneath contempt. 

Vogel von Falckenstein is not the only openly- 
avowed foe of the former chief of the military 
cabinet. The unfortunate a£fair with Greneral Groben 
also lives still in the public recollection. By the 
by, the authorship of the famous letter in the Frank- 
furter Zeitung, which questioned the soldiership of 
General Manteufifel in the war of 1870-71, was 
attributed to General Groben — rightly or wrongly, 
it would be difficult to prove ; but I believe without 
a shadow of foundation in fact. 

General Manteuffel is said to have borne himself 
towards the poor conquered Frankforters with undue 
severity and haughty arrogance. He might, perhaps, 
plead in justification that he acted upon explicit 
instructions. Great indignation was at the time felt 
against the Frankforters in the highest quarter. 

Manteuffel was instructed to insist upon a war 
contribution of some £2,000,000, in addition to 
about £500,000 already exacted by Vogel von 

A demand of so much hard cash was certainly 


New German Empire. 

not the way best calculated to ingratiate himself 
with the good Frankforters. 

With regard to the war in South Gennany, Vogel 
von Falekemrtein had left his successor very little 
to do. 

When the armistice was concluded, Manteuffel was 
sent on a special mission to St. Petersburg, where 
he succeeded in conciliating the Russian government, 
and obtaining its tacit assent to the contemplated 
annexation to Prussia of Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, 
Nassau, Electoral Hesse, and Frankfort. 

After hia return from St. Petersbui^, he, for a 
time, took the command again of the Prussian 
troops in the Elbe duchies. 

Then he temporarily resigned his military fimctions, 
and retired to Naumburg, where he happens to enjoy 
a rich prebend, " One leg in the army, the other in 
the church, his bead in diplomacy, and his heart 
nowhere " — so runs the bitter sneer of one of his 
most prejudiced and unjust enemies. 

In August 1868, General Manteuffel was appointed 
to the command of the Ist corps of the Prussian 
army, vice Vogel von Falckenstein retired. 

In 1870 he led the 1st corps to Metz, to join 
the 1st army under Steinmetz. He arrived on the 
14th, when he at once joined in the fight of that 
day, repulsing all attacks made upon liia corps by 
Ladmirault, and driving the French back behind tlie 
fortifications of ilctz. 

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176 Men who have made the 

Id the subsequent siege of Metz, Manteufiel held 
the eastern line of inclosure. Here it was his good 
fortune to fight the battle of Noisseville, on the 
3lBt of August and 1st of September, when Maxshal 
Bazaine made his first desperate attempt to break 
through the iron chain drawn around him and 
his army. 

The French call this battle the battle of St Barbe. 
Early in the morning of the 31st of August, Bazaine 
led the French guards, with the 4th and 6th corps, 
ntmiberiDg altogether some 90,000 men, across the 
Moselle. It took the French marshal nigh upon 
twelve hours to effect this movement ; and the attack 
upon the Grerman positions began only about half- 
past four o'clock in the afternoon, languidly at first 

ManteufFel had only the Ist corps, the Division 
Rummer, the Grand Duke of Hesse division, one 
cavalry division, and a few regiments of the 10th 
corps, to oppose to the overwhelming French forces. 

At half-past six o'clock in the evening the French 
carried Noisseville and Nouilly, drove the Germans 
back upon Retonfay, and occupied Coincy, and 
subsequently also Servigny. 

At nine o'clock in the evening the Germans had 
retaken Noisseville and most of the other important 
positions, when General Changarnier {it is said) led 
another furious French attack at ten o'clock at night, 
which succeeded in driving the Germans back upon 
the plateau of St. Barbe. Servigny was, indeed, 
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New German Empire. 177 

retaken by the Germans, but Noisseville, Coincy, and 
Flanville remained in the hands of the French. 

Next morning, the Ist of September, the Ist corps 
and Rammer's division held the first line on the 
battle-field of the day before ; the 25th division {the 
Hessians) and the 9th corps (Mannstein) held the 
second line. The 7th and 8th corps were placed in 
d cheval south and west of the river. The 2nd, 3rd, 
and 10th corps held the left bank of the Moselle, in 
the direction of Montm^y. 

At four in the morning the Pnisaians began their 
attack upon Noisseville, which in the space of four 
hours was taken and retaken three times. The 
French directed all their efforts upon the plateau of 
St. Barbe, which they were evidently resolved to 
carry by storm. 

Prince Frederick Charles, from his bead-quarters at 
Malancourt, ordered the 7th corps up to NoiBseville, the 
8th being directed to take up the position left vacant 
by the 7th. Kummer was ordered to place himself 
at ManteufFel's disposition with his entire division. 

Flanville and Coincy were carried by storm ; Noisse- 
ville was partly burned, and, after seven hours' hard 
fighting, the vaUant 3rd French corps, which this day 
had joined in the attack upon the German positions, 
was finally forced to retreat 

At four in the afternoon the French were driven 
back everywhere, at Noisseville, Mercy-le-Haut, in the 
centre and on the right wing, and soon after the 

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178 Men who have made the 

Genuaus fully re-occupied the eame positions which 
they had held on the 31st of August before the 
French sortie en masse. 

The losses of the GermaDS in this fierce fight were 
120 officers and 2,358 men killed and wounded. The 
French lost 141 officers and 2,664 men. 

After the capitulation of Metz the old first army 
was formed anew (1st, 7th, and 8th corps, 3rd 
reserve division, and three cavalry divisions), Man- 
teufTel being appointed commander-in-chief over it. 

Leaving the 7th corps behind, ManteuflFel started 
on the 7th of November over Eheims, in the direction 
of Compi^gne, when he suddenly turned off, and 
marched rapidly upon Amiena Here he defeated 
a French army of 30,000 men on the 27th of 
November, throwing them back across the Bomme 
upon Arras. On the 30th of November the citadel 
of Amiens surrendered. 

La F^re had been token on the 27th already. 

On the 5th of December General Manteoffel 
occupied Rouen. He then concentrated his army, 
and, after a series of hard fights on the Hallue, to 
the north-east of Amiens, on the 23rd and 24th of 
December, he defeated the French north army under 
Faidherbe, compelling the enemy to retire into the 
northern fortresses. 

Upon a renewed attempt of Faidherbe, Manteuffel 
gwned another victoiy over him, at Bapaume, on the 
2nd-3rd of January, 1871. 

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New German Empire. 

In all these battles the French army of the north, 
whose object it was to march to the relief of the 
besieged ParisianB, outnumbered the forces under 
Manteuffel in the proportion of two to one. 

On the 8th of January, 1871, the king intrusted 
to Gfeneral Manteuffel the command over a newly- 
formed army, called the army of the south, whose 
arduous task it was to be to march across the 
mountmns to the aid of General Werder, then 
threatened by overwhelming French forces under 
General BourbakL 

That General Moltke should ever have given his 
consent to inlxust the command of an expedition of 
such momentous importance as this to an " inefficient, 
incapable, and incompetent" leader, is really a little" 
too much to be asked to believe. ■ 

Moreover, the brilliant manner in which the trust 
reposed in him was justified by Manteuffel, ought 
surely to be held a sufficient answer to the calumnies 
of his detractors. 

Despite the severe cold and the heavy snowfalls, 
the general led some 45,000 men with marvellous 
rapidity over the C6te d'Or (Mons Duranus) and the 
Jura, cut off the French army of the east under 
Bourbatd &om.aIl its lines of retreat upon Lyons, and 
forced it finally, by the fight at Pontarlier, where the 
Germans took two eagles, nineteen guns, and some 
15,000 prisoners, to cross over into the neutral 
territory of Switzerland. 

Men who have made the 

It was this final catastrophe which determined 
Gambetta to give way, and may thus be said to have 
had a leading ahaxe in the conclusion of peace. 

The king appreciated General Manteuffel's great 
services at this critical juncture. The Grand Cross 
of the Iron Cross and the Order of the Black Eagle 
were bestowed upon him. 

After the dissolution of the army of the south, 
Manteuffet was appointed commander of the second 
army (30th of March), and subsequently, on the 20th 
of June, 1871, commander-in-chief of the German 
anny of occupation remaining on French soil. His 
head-quarters were established at Nancy. 

In this position General Manteuffel certainly proved 
himself the right man in the right place. 

After the final evaciiation of France, his majesty 
the emperor and king raised Manteufiel to the 
highest military rank, and bestowed upon the new 
field-marshal also the important post of Governor 
of Berlin. 

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New German Empire. 


Next to Moltke this is imquestioiiably the greatest 
Btrategist and the most accomplished staff-officer of 
the PnissiaD and OermaD armies, also the most con- 
summate tactical leader in the field, and altogether 
the first of the great military captains of the age, 
thoagh not yet a field-marshal 

Ernest Frederick Edward Vogel von Falckenstein 
was bom at Breslau (I believe) on the 5th of 
January, 1797. His father was a retired Prussian 
major, who unfortunately died early, leaving his 
family in extremely embarrassed circumstances. The 
widow having no means to pay for the education 
of her son, was forced to claim the assistance of a 
relative of the family, who occupied the high position 
of Prince-Bishop of Brealao. 

The worthy prelate willingly consented to take the 
boy off the poor mother's hands, but on condition 
only tiiat he should devote himself to the clerical 
profession, for which the unhappy lad had not the 

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Men who have made the 

least vocation nor the slightest liking or inclination. 
Seeing no other way before him, however, the boy 
coDsented, and devoted himself eagerly and assiduously 
to those studies which were to prepare and fit him 
for his intended future career. 

Meanwhile came the great year 1813, with the 
universal uprising of the FrussiaD people to shake 
off the detested French yoke. Young Edward, though 
only ^teen then, felt that he was a Prussian aud 
the son of a soldier. He was resolved to join in 
the war of liberation. With rare firmness he resisted 
the bishop's most powerful arguments, and even his 
mother's passionate prayers and tears. 

After a hard struggle he at last succeeded in 
extorting his family's reluctant consent to enter the 
army. But here again he bad to contend against 
formidable difficulties. The boy looked sickly, and 
his appearance clearly betrayed a weak constitution. 
He was therefore rejected by corps after corps to 
which he applied for admission. 

At last Colonel KlUse, an old &iend of his late 
father, took compassion upon young Falckenstein, and 
obtained for him admission as volunteer in the West 
Prussian Grenadiers. From the instant he had the 
chance given him the new volunteer proved his nature 
and character as a true soldier by the calm, resolute 
courage which he showed on every occasion. 

After the battle on the Katzbach he was made 
ensign, and in December, 1813, lieutenant 

New German Empire. 183 

With BlUcher he crossed the Rhine at Caub, in 
the New Tear's night of 1814. He distinguished 
himself on every occasion, more especially in the 
affair of Montmirail, where every officer of his 
battalion fell, so that the command ultimately 
devolved upon him. Here the youth of seventeen 
conducted himself with the cool self-possession of 
an old officer, and showed the most consummate 
skin in the handling of his men. By way of 
reward he was made first lieutenant on the spot, 
besides receiving the rare distinction of the Iron 
Cross Order. 

When the war was over, there was of course no 
more talk of the clerical profession. Toung Falcken- 
stein stuck to the army. He was, however, painfully 
conscious of his nearly total lack of everything in 
the shape of military training, and of all technical 
koowledge of bis profession. He therefore threw 
himself with ardour upon the study of the military 
art and science in all its branches, and he succeeded 
so well in his efforts that he was soon sent to the 
topographic bureau, 

Here he suddenly discovered that he had a real 
talent for design and also for painting. This talent he 
cultivated with his accustomed ardour and assiduity. 
He tried his hand more especially at oil-painting. 
His really excellent productions in the various 
branches of the furt attracted the attention and 
gained the young officer the favour of the then Crown 


Men who have made the 

Prince, who subsequently ascended the Prussian throne 
as Frederick William IV". 

By orders of this prince, Falckenstein established 
at a later period the Royal Institute for Painting 
on Glass, of which he himself remained for a time 
the distinguished head. The magnificent painted 
window in the church of St. Mary, near Dantzic, is 
a sample of Falckenstein's art-productions in tMs line. 

His military advancement was rapid at first, for 
we find him as early as 1818 in command of the 
battalion of the Emperor Francis Grenadiers, which, 
jointly with a battalion of the Emperor Alexander 
Grenadiers, formed the guard of honoiir of the mon- 
archs at Aix-la-Chapelle during the coDgrees which 
assembled there on the 29th of September of that year. 

After this he had to wait a loug time for farther 
promotion, for in 1848 he was still only a lieutenant- 
colonel On the ISth of March of that year be was 
woimded in the great Berlio street fight, which did 
not prevent him, however, from joining in the Hol- 
stein campaign. 

Soon after, he obtained his full colonelcy, together 
with the command of the rifies of the guard. He 
subsequently was appointed chief of the staff to 
General WrangeL 

In 1864 Vogel von Falckenstein, who had mean- 
while attained the rank of general, was Wrangel's 
chief of the staff in the Schleswig - Holstein war, 
till after the capture of Diippel, when he was 

New German Empire. 

appointed Governor of Jutland, — Moltke taking his 
place as chief of the staE 

It was in this Danish campaign that Vogel von 
Falckenstetn first had the opportunity afforded him 
of displaying his rare strategic and tactic gifts on 
a wider field. Up to this time he had simply been 
known as a most meritorious, hard-working, and 
painstaking staff-officer, and a most excellent artist 
on glass and porcelain. Now he suddenly jumped to 
the foremost front rank of leaders in the field. 

After the conclusion of peace with Denmark, 
General Vogel von Falckenstein was intrusted by the 
king with the command of the 7th army corps. 

In 1866 the danger which threatened Prussia 
fi-om the side of the Austrian allies in the German 
Confederation was real and formidable, though the 
plot hatched between Gablenz, George of Hanover, 
and the Augustenburg pretender had been stifled 
ere its possible full development 

There remained, however, the Hanoverian army, 
numerous, brave, and well appointed and provided 
in every way — except in its direction and guidance 
— and the armies of the south German states, 
which, on paper, reached the formidable figure of 
above 200,000 men, and numbered even in sober 
reality some 120,000 to 130,000 effectives. 

Vogel von Falckenstein was the general chosen 
to meet this formidable danger. The forces placed 
at his disposal were simply one division of the 


186 Men who have made the 

7th corps, the Prussian garrisons withdrawn &om 
Mayence and Eastatt, and a few regiments of the 
reserve, with some Thuringian and other troops, the 
whole never exceeding 50,000 effectives at any one 
time whilst he held command, and falling meet of 
the time considerably short, of tiuB figure. 

He succeeded first in disposing of the Hanoverians, 
whose surrender he compelled. This was no doubt 
a very good beginning; but it was not all — ^fer 
from it ; for the immensely hard problem was now 
placed before the general, how to wedge himself 
between two hostile armies, eauh of them very 
greatly exceeding in numbers the whole force at 
his command. 

Falckensteio's campaign in 1866 was so crowded 
with marches and countermarches and manoeuvres 
of every kind, and with actual encounters in the 
field, that even a mere outline, to be at all intelli- 
gible to the reader, would occupy considerably more 
space than we can afford to give here. Besides, a 
brief sketch of the campaign will be found in the 
memoirs of Generals von der Tann and Hartmann. 
Let it suffice then to say in this place, that Vogel 
von Falckenstein in this marvellous campaign, where 
he literally stood always one to three on the as- 
sumption most favourable to his forces, displayed the 
highest genius as a military captain. 

The boldness of his plans, the precision of his 
operations, the rapidity of his movements, the skill 
iih, Google 

New German Empire. 187 

of his dispositions, and the vigour of his attacks, 
more than neutralized the formidable advant^ of 
threefold niunbers and of excellent positions on the 
other side. 

He wedged himself successfully between the two 
opposing hosts, badlj beating each of them alter- 
•nately in detail When, on the 16th of July, about 
one month after he had first token the field, he 
entered the ancient free city of Frankfort-on-the- 
Main as conqueror, there remained very little to be 
done to complete the ntter discomfiture axtd military 
annihilation of Austria's south German allies. 

It has been said that Vogel von Falckenstein, in 
his dealings with the conquered Frankforters, showed 
over-ostentatiously the very roughest side of his 
character. However, there would seem to be good 
reason for the probable supposition that he acted 
in this upon express instructions &om the highest 
quarter, and that he did so with the greatest reluct- 
ance only. Nay, it would even appear that he took 
upon himself to lower the demand of twenty-five 
millions of florins war contribution, which he had 
been instructed to make, to six millionB, and that 
he gave thereby great ofience in the highest quarter. 

Whatever may be the real facta of the case, thus 
much is certain, that on the 19th of July, three days 
after his triumphant entry into Frankfort, General 
Vogel von Falckenstein was recalled from his com- 
mand most suddenly, and upon the very colourable 

■ Google 

188 Men who have made the 

pietext that the state of afiatrs in Bohemia absolutely 
required the immediate presence in that province of 
a most energetic and skilful commander. General 
Manteuffel, who was appointed his successor, 
speedily showed by Ms harsh and haughty bearing 
towards the Frankforters, and by the inilictioD of 
a war fine of £2,000,000, in addition to Falcken- 
Btein's demand of £500,000, that the old general had 
certainly not been removed from the command he 
had held so gloriously on account of any reprehensible 
roughness in his behaviour to the citizens that had 
excited disapprobation in the higher quarters. 

Take it as we may, we cannot but look upon it 
as a very strange proceeding, to say the least of it, to 
remove from his command an approved general aftei 
a most brilliantly successful campaign, with all the 
work fully accomplished by him, and nothing re- 
maining for him to do but to cull his hard-earned 
and well-deserved laurels. 

After the conclusion of peace, Vogel von Falcken- 
stein was of course included in the list of com- 
manders to whom the grateful king and nation voted 
and gave dotations. With the sum voted to him ho 
purchased the Dolzig estate. 

In the autumn of the year he exchanged the 
command of the 7th corps for that of the Ist, 
on which occasion the troops up to this under his 
command manifested their high regard for him by 
presenting him with a magnificent testimonial. 


New German Envpire. 189 

The city of Konigsberg, the head-quarters of his 
new command, elected him for its representative in the 
constjtuent assembly of the North German Confedera- ■ 
tlon. He took his seat on the Conservative benches. 

In the debates upon the organization of the con- 
federate army, he strongly insisted upon the three 
years' term of service in tiie line, declaring it to be 
of the utmost importance in war that a commander 
should know and feel that he had under his com- 
mand soldiers who fully knew the service and could 
be absolutely relied upon. The consciousness of this 
would inspire a commander with courage to dare even 
venturesome enterprizes, as he (Falckenstein) could 
tell the house from his own personal experience. 

In 1868 Falckenstein retired from active service, 
and went to reside on his Dolzig estate. 

But in 1870, when the war with France broke 
out, the old general, who was then seventy-tJiree, had 
once more a high trust confided to him. 

Prussia had no adequate fleet to cope with the 
French navy, and it was to be foreseen then that 
the French would be likely to endeavour to turn their 
vast naval superiority to the most profitable account, 
by harassing the North German coasts, and per- 
haps attempting landings here and there ; nay, it 
seemed even probable that they would try to throw 
some fifty thousand men upon some inviting spot of 
the coast, which might have proved a very serious 
diversion indeed. 

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Men who have made the 

It was iDdispensable, then, to have a most skilful and 
energetic commander on the spot, to whom the defence 
of the coast lands might confidently be intrusted. 

There was truly only one man in the Prussian 
army of whom it could be said that he fulfilled all 
the conditions required for this high and most difiS- 
cult position — Vogel von Falckenstein. 

So he was chosen for the trust. He was appointed 
governor-general of aU German coast lands — ^that is to 
say, of the entire region of the Ist, 2nd, 9th, (md 
10th corps of the army of the North German 

The l7th division, belonging to the 9th corps, was 
left behind to form the nucleus of the coast defencea 
The 25th division (Hessians) took the place of the 
17th in the 9th corps. 

Vogel von Falckenstein, who made the city of 
Hanover his head-quarters, displayed all the energy of 
his character and the wonderful resources of his high 
military genius in providing, within a surprisingly 
short space of time, a most efficient system of coast 
defence. He organized a numerous and effective 
sea-coast guard ; he completely shut up the mouths 
of the rivers and the entrances to the harbours ; and 
he established so thoroughly efficient a system of 
communication and rapid connection all along the 
coasts of the North Sea and the Baltic, that the 
French fleet did not succeed in even a single 
attempt to land. 

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New German Empire. 

In his internal administration he energetically put 
down all attempts at socialist agitation, and he also 
speedily made the French officers interned within the 
bounds of his government sensible that all attempted 
misuse or violation of their word of honour was a 
dangerous game to play with him. 

When the war was over, and General Vogel von 
Falckensteiu was relieved from his command, his ma- 
jesty the emperor and king rewarded the great man 
by bestowing upon him the Order of the Black Eagle, 
whilst Steinmetz, HerwarUi von Bittenfeld, and 
Manteufiel were made field-marshals — all three no 
doubt good men and excellent efficient officers, but 
assuredly not one of the three the equal, even 
approximately, of Vogel von Falckenstein. 

It must be left to the future historian to find the 
cause for Vogel von Falckenstein's sudden removal 
from his command in 1866, and the reason for his 
being passed over in the marshals' promotion 
of 1871. 

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Meti who have made the 


This is another of the most highly theoretically 
and practically accomplished general officera in the 
German army. 

Augustus Charles von Goben was bom on the 
10th of December, 1816, at Stade, in tiie then 
kingdom of Hanover. His father was a retired 
half-pay captain, who subsequently obtained the 
honorary rank of major. 

When the boy was about ten years old, he was 
sent to the gymnasium at CeUe, which at the time 
enjoyed a well-deserved high reputation as one of 
the best educational institutes in the north of 
Germany. Here he devoted himself mo3t diligently 
to the acquisition of solid leammg in the several 
branches of knowledge that then constituted a sound 
education, with special reference to a future military 

In October, 1833, young Giiben entered the Pros- 

aian service as a military aspirant. He joined the 


New German Empire. 193 

24th regiment of infantry (musketeers), then stationed 
at New Ruppin. 

About a twelvemonth after, he attained his ensigney, 
and on the 15th of February 1835, he was gazetted 

Goben was a bom soldier in the fullest sense of 
the word. His theoretical military studies, which 
he pursued with tiie greatest ardour, could not quite 
satisfy his soldierly craving. He thirsted for an 
opening that might enable him to practise his 
darling profession in actual warfare. As there 
seemed but little hope that the Prussian service 
would' for a long time to come afford any such 
opening, the young officer resolved, after mature 
reflection, to resign his commission in the Prussian 
army, and to carry his sword to Spain, where just 
at that time Don Carlos and Donna Christina (in 
the name of her daughter Isabel), or rather their 
respective partisans, were fighting for the crown. 
This was in the year 1836. 

Considering that of the two pretenders to the 
thorny throne of Spain, Don Carlos might at least 
fairly be looked upon as the more legitimate and the 
more respectable, or rather the less disreputable, 
young Goben resolved to offer his sword and service 
to him. 

The appearance of an accomplished young officer 
was hailed with pleasure at the pretender's head- 
quarters. Goben received a commission as second 

VOL. 11. ,_,,,, Google 

Men who ham made the 

lieutenant, and found at once employment on the 

In the first year of hia service he had an oppor- 
tunity of distinguishing himself at the battle of 
Fuentarabia, which gained him his promotion to 
a first lieutenancy. 

The year after, he was present at the battles and 
encomiters of Peralta, Zembrano, Segovia, Navreda, 
Lerma, Yalladolid, and Aranda. 

In 1838, he joined as captain in the expedition 
to Castile, in which he was severely wounded at 

In 1839, he served at first in the engineers, but 

tcr a time he was transferred to the infantry. He 
led his company with great distinction in the fights 
of Chulilla and Carboneras, and in the winter 
campaign in Valencia and Ar^n. 

In 1840, Major Goben was again severely wounded 
at Teruel. He was now promoted to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel in the engineer corps ; but with 
this promotion his promising military career in 
Spain came to a close. He remained, indeed, faith- 
ful and loyal to the last to the cause which he had 
espoused, and it was only after the pretender himself 
had given up the struggle in despair that Goben 
took his leave of him and of Spain. 

Besides the two severe wounds which he had 
received at Sotoca and Teruel, he had been wounded 
more dightly three times in the course of the war. 

New German Empire. 195 

He had also twice fallen into the hands of the 
Christinos, but he had each time been speedily 
exchanged again. 

Ex-Lieutenant-Colonel G6ben had to leave Spain 
almost penniless, and to wander through France on 
foot. It was a painful journey, full of bitter 
privations. But he bore all with stoic calm, cheer- 
fully, with the buoyant light-heartedness of a true 
soldier of fortune. 

He reached his father's house in September, 1840. 

The year after, he published his war adventures, 
under the title, " Four Tears in Spain." This book 
created some sensation at the time in military and 
political circles. 

His inborn passionate love of a soldier's life left 
him no rest untU he had succeeded in obtaining 
permission to re-enter the Prussian service. He 
had of course to begin de novo at the foot of 
the ladder. 

On the 26th of February 1842, he was gazetted 
to a commission in the 8th regiment of infantry, but 
ordered at once on the general staff of the army. 

The high reputation which he had gained, his 
extensive and sound knowledge of the military 
sciences, and his practical experience smoothed the 
path for him to a more rapid advancement than 
falls ordinarily to the share of young officers without 
powerful influence to push them. 

In three years he passed through the grades of 

o 2, ,,, Google 

196 Men who liave made the 

second lieutenant and first lieutenant to the rank of 
captain on the Btaff. 

In 1848, he was sent to the head-quarters of the 
4th corps at Magdeburg. 

In May 1849, he was attached to the division 
Hanueken, which was charged to put down the 
insurrection in Westphalia. 

He was afterwards ordered on the staff of the 
commander-in-chief of the army sent into Baden. 

Here he had occasion to prove hia high military 
capacity in the several affairs of Ludwigshafen, 
Waghausel, Ubstadt, Bruchsal, Durlach, Kuppen- 
heim, and Eastatt. 

After a brief period of service in the 1 6th 
infantry regiment, Goben, promoted to the rank of 
major, was ordered back to the staff. 

In 1855, he was made lieutenant-colonel and 
chief of the staff of the 6th corps, from which he 
was transferred, in May 1858, to the 8th corps. 

In 1860, he was promoted to the rank of colonel, 
and sent with several other Prussian oflScers to the 
Spanish army operating under O'Donnell in Morocco. 
Here he met many of his former antagonists in the 
Carlist war. 

He remained with the Spanish army throughout 
the campaign of 1860, and was present at the 
fights at Samsa and Uad-Ras. 

Soon after his return from this expedition he was 
raised to the rank of major-general, and in 1863, 

New German Empire. 197 

he obtained the command of the 26th infantry 
brigade, which he led in the campaign of 1864 
against Denmark, before Diippel, in the storm of 
the fortifications, in the crossing to Alseu, and in 
the capture of that island, everywhere in such 
brilliant fashion that he was rewarded with the 
Ordre pour le Merite, as well as with other 
Prussian, German, and Austrian orders and war 

He was also promoted to the command of the 
10th division, from which he was soon after (in 
May 1865) transferred to that of the 13th division, 
with the rank of lieutenant-generaL 

His advancement was altogether most exceptionally 
rapid. In twenty-three years he attained the same 
rank of lieutenant-general which it had taken such 
men as Vogel von Falckenstein, Herwarth von Bitten- 
feld, and Steinmetz forty-seven long years to climb 
up to. Even the so highly-favoured Manteuflel had 
been quite thirty-five years about it. 

This fact, whilst affording irrefragable proof of 
Goben's brilUant talents and his high military 
capacity, speaks also volumes in favour of the 
ayetem which thus permits the most rapid pro- 
motion of a deserving officer, though he happens 
to be alt<^ther unsupported by the accident of 
rank or wealth, or by powerful family connections. 

In 1866, Goben operated first in Hanover at the 
head of his division ; subsequently he was Vogel 


Me^i who have made the 

Ton Falckenstein's most e£Bcient aid in the cam- 
paign on the Main. That great general knew 
how thoroughly to appreciate him at his just high 
value. Goben commanded the forces in the suc- 
cessful affairs of Dermbach, Eissingen, Laufsich, 
AschaflFenburg, Werbach, Tauber-Bischofsheim, and 

He Bubsequently published a series of papers oij 
some of these fights (in the Allgemeine Militdr- 
zeitung), which by competent judges are held to 
rank among the most sterling productions in the 
military literature of the day. 

When the Franco-German war broke out, Goben, 
promoted to the rank of general of infantry, had 
the command of the 8th corps intrusted to him. 
The 8th corps formed part of the first army under 

In the memoir of that leader will be found a 
brief record of the great battle of Spicheren, which 
was fought on the very first day of the opening of 
the campaign, and in which Genera! GrOben again 
brilliantly proved his high military genius. 

General Goben took a glonous part also in the 
tremendous fights of Mars-la-Tour and Gravelotte, 
on the 16th and 1 8th of August. 

The 8th corps formed part of the army under 
Prince Frederick Charles, which kept Bazaine shut 
up in Metz from the 19th of August to the 26th 
of October 1870. 

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New German Empire, 

After the capitulation of Bazaine's army and of 
the fortress of Metz, the 8th corps formed again 
part of the first army, which was reconstituted under 
the command of General Manteuffel, and sent to the 
north of E^Mice, to watch the new French army of 
the north formed there under the command of General 
Faidherbe, one of the best and most skilful among 
the French leaders. 

The battles of Amiens, on the HaUue, and of 
Bapaume were fought and gained by three divisions 
only of Manteuffel's army, as the entire 7th corps 
had been left behind at Metz ; and out of these 
three divisions GSben commanded two. The success 
may fairly be set down then, in great part, to his 

On the 8th of January 1871, General Manteuffel, 
having been appointed commander-in-chief of the 
new army of the south, intended for the relief of 
General Werder, handed over the command of the 
first army to General Goben. 

The new chief had barely been ten days iu 
command when he dealt the French army of the 
north the crushing blow of St. Quentin. 

The city of St Quentin had been occupied and 
held for twenty-four hours by the army of the 
Meuse, on the 2l8t of October 1870. 

On the 26th of December it was re-occupied 
by troops of the first army, who had to abandon 
it again on the 15th of January, when Genend 


Men who have made the 

Faidherbe, by a strategic move threatening a diver- 
sion in the rear of the first German army, compelled 
General Goben to change his position. 

On the 17th of January General Faidherbe took 
possession of St. Quentin with the bulk of his army, 
which consisted of the 22nd and 23rd French corps, 
and greatly exceeded in numbers the forces under 
Goben, who only had present the 8th corps, part of 
the 1st corps, part of the 3rd cavalry division, the 
Saxon cavalry division under Count Lippe, the 6th 
battalion of Saxon rifles, and the 2nd Saxon horse 

On the 18th there was a preliminary encountsr 
between the vanguards of the two armies, which 
terminated in the retreat of the French from 
Beauvais to St. Quentin. 

On the 19th General Goben attacked the French 
most vigorously in their positions at Javy, Gougia, 
Neuville, St. Amand, and Gaucby. 

There was a radical fault in Faidherbe s position : 
the two corps of his army were separated by the 
canal of Crozal, so that they could only come to the 
aid and support of one another by the circuitous 
way through St. Quentin. 

After several hours' hard fighting, the villages held 
by the French were carried by Goben's forces, both 
wings of Faidherbe's army being turned, aud the en- 
tire French host being thereby forced back. At two 
o'clock Faidherbe made a last desperate efibrt with 

New German Empire. 201 

the 22Dd French corps, supported by a most powerful 
artillery force, to recover the lost ground ; but it 
was all in vain, and at four o'clock in the afternoon 
the French were in full retreat, which soon de- 
generated into wild flight in the direction of Cam- 
bray and Guise, Valenciennes and Lille. 

The Saxon cavalry contributed to the success of 
the day by several brilliant attacks. 

On the evening of the same day the railway 
station of St Quentin was most valiantly carried 
by the 19th regiment of infantry, under the lead 
of a younger brother of the commander-in-chief. 

In this battle of St. Quentin the German loss in 
killed and wounded was 94 officers and about 3,400 
non-commissioned officers and privates. The French 
left several thousand wounded behind in St. Quentin. 
Their total loss in killed and wounded must have 
been about 6,000. Besides this, 12,000 unwounded 
prisoners fell into the hands of the victorious pursuers. 
The French also lost six guns. 

The French army of the north, the last hope of 
besieged Paris, had literally ceased to exist 

Goben's victory of St Quentin forms, indeed, one 
of the greatest feats of arms in this war, so rich in 
glorious triumphs. 

In June 1871, when the first army was dis- 
solved. General Goben received, besides many other 
orders, the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross, and 
was presented also with the 2nd Ehenau Infantry 

■ Google 

202 Mtn who have made the 

Regiment, No. 28. The city of Minden made him 
an hoDorary citizen. 

General Goben continues still in command of the 
8th corps of the German anny, and has his head- 
quarters at Coblenz. 

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New German Empire. 



Thoitgh placed here among the last in our gallery of 
glory, this general ranks inconteatably in every way 
the equal of the most distinguished war chiefe of the 
new German empire — with the single towering ex- 
ception of Vogel von Falckenstein. 

Augustus von Werder, a scion of an ancient, noble 
family, settled since the fourteenth century in the 
old Wenden land between the rivers Elbe and Havel, 
was bom on the 12th of September 1808, at Schlosa- 
berg, Bailiwick Norkitten, in Eastern Prussia, where 
the regiment of dragoons in which his father (died in 
1837, at Glogau, as lieutenant-general) was then a 
captain was lying in cantonments after the disastrous 
campaign of 1807. 

The boy received his first education partly at home, 
partly at the military divisional school in Glogau, 
the father himself taking a prominent share in the 
mental and intellectual training of his son. An 
earnest man, and a hater and despiser of all mere 

Men who have made the 

superficial show, he took the mo3t anxious care that 
Augustus should be thoroughly grounded in every 
branch of his studies. The boy had considerable 
natural giftSj and great facility of apprehension. 
Assiduous and diligent withal, he soon gathered a 
rich store of varied, sound, and solid information, so 
that ere he had yet completed his seventeenth year, 
he was in every way well prepared for his intended 
profession — the army. 

On the 14th of June 1825, young Augustus von 
Werder entered the regiment of Gardes du Corps, 
in the initial capacity of avantageur, or aspirant 

In March 1826, he got his commission of sub- 
lieutenant ; at the express desire of his father he was 
transferred at the same time to the 1st foot-guards, 
where it was probably thought there would not be 
so many temptations to pleasure, calculated to with- 
draw the young man from his more serious studies, 
as in the more brilliant Gardes du Corps. 

Young Werder remained for seven years in the 
foot-guards, acquiring a thorough practical know- 
ledge of the service. He continued all the while 
also his theoretical studies with such excellent 
success, that in 1833 he was selected as one of the 
favoured few in the Prussian service who are sent 
to the General War School in Berlin to finish their 
scientific military education. 

After the completion of the customary course of 
three years at the war school, young Werder waa 
,_ ibyGoogIc 

New German Empire. 205 

sent back to his regiment for two more years' 
practical service. He was then transferred, in 1838, 
to the 8th pioneer division, that he might acquire 
practical knowledge also of that highly important 
branch of the service. 

In 1839 he was attached as instructor to the cadet 
school in Berlin. 

In 1840 he was sent to the topographic bureau, 
and had several important surveys intrusted to him. 
In 1842 he gained his first step in promotion, 
being made first lieutenant, after stopping sixteen 
years on the lowest rung of the ladder — another 
signal instance of slow advancement in the initial 
stages of the Prussian service. 

A t this time holy Eussia was hard at work 
civilizing the barbarians of the Caucasus, and 
endeavouring to overcome the stubborn opposition of 
the Lesghians, Tschetscbenzes, and other tribes, 
who were clinging to their assailed independence with 
desperate tenacity. 

Here was a splendid opportunity for the new 
lieutenant to learn something of actual warfare, which 
his superiors determined should not be lost. So 
Lieutenant Werder was duly provided with credentials, 
and sent to the Caucasus as a kind of Prussian 
military commissioner unattached, that he might 
study mountain warfare and the mode of fighting of 
both parties. 

He fully justified the choice which had fallen upon 

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Men who have made the 

him. He was indefatigable in the fulfilment of the 
many and varied duties which hia position imposed 
upon him. Thus he would ride or march along 
with the Cossacks on their reconnoitring expeditions 
into the inmost depth of the mountains, or attend the 
Bussian infantry and Asiatic militia in their perilous 
marches through ravines and defiles. Every pause 
which occurred in the active operations of the 
Russians he turned to good account by visits to 
Tiflia, Kertsch, and the Russian coast defences. 
The lessons which he learnt, more especially respecting 
the proper mode of using artillery to the greatest 
advantage in the defence of long lines of mountain 
positions, he turned some thirty years after to 
brilliant account in his desperate struggle against 
Bourbaki's overwhelming forces. 

On the 24th of June 1843, he was present at a 
fight between the Tschetschenzes and Cossacks, near 
the fortress which the Russians were then erecting 
on the banks of the river Kefar. Here a ball, fired 
from an ambush of the Tschetschenzes, struck him in 
the left upper arm, smashing the bone. This brought 
his services in these quarters to an involuntary close. 
He luckily escaped amputation, however, and re- 
covered his health completely by the beneficial heal- 
ing action of the waters of Patigorsk and Teplitz. 

The Emperor of Russia bestowed the Order of St. 
Wladimir upon him, to which his own king added 
that of St. John. 

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New German Empire, 

In March 1846, Werder was promoted to the 
rank of captain, and attached to the general staff of 
the army. Soon after, he was attached to the general 
stair of the iBt corps. In August 1848, he was 
ordered to take his place as captain in the 1st 
regiment of infantry. 

In March 1851, He gained another step, being 
promoted to the rank of major, and appointed to the 
command of a hattalion of the 33rd regiment of 
infantry. In October 1853, he was called to the 
conunand of the Landwehr battalion Grafrath (10th 
regiment), whence he was again transferred, in 
February 1856, to the 4th battalion of rifles. 

In October 1856, he attained the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel, and about a year after, he was 
appointed to the command of the fusilier battaUon 
of the 2nd regiment of foot-guarda. 

In May 1858, he was made deputy inspector (with 
full performance of the inspectorial functions) of the 
rifles and carabineers, and also commander of the 
corps of royal field couriers. The year after, he 
was promoted to the rank of full colonel, and 
appointed inspector of the rifles and carabineers, the 
functions of which office he had performed already 
since the year before. He was at the same time 
named also a member of the directorial board of 
the Central Army Institute of Gymnastics at Berlin. 

In January 1863, Colonel Werder was appointed to 
the command of the 8tb in&ntry brigade, stationed 


Men who have made the 

at Bromberg. Three months after, he was made 
major-general, and in January 1864, transferred to 
Berlin as commander of the 4th infantry brigade 

In May 1865, he was charged with the command 
of the 3rd division, stationed at Stettin, and the year 
after he was definitely appointed to the command 
of this division, the appointment being followed 
a few weeks later by his promotion to the rank of 
lieutenant-general It had accordingly taken Werder 
forty years to reach the same rank which Goben had 
attained in twenty-three years, or, if we go back even 
to Goben's first connection with the service, in thirty- 
two years, a convincing proof of the extraordinary 
rapidity of the latter 's promotion in the army, which 
I have pointed out in his memoir. 

I have given General Werder's promotions and 
transfers thus minutely here in' illustration of the 
Prussian military system, which sends a promising 
officer from regiment to raiment, as it were, and 
from one branch of the service to another. That 
oflScers thus trained and schooled must necessarily be 
superior to others who have not had the same 
opportunities afforded them to gather experience and 
expertness in every branch of their profession is 

It is this excellent system to wliich Prussia may 
be said to owe, in a great measure at least, her 
present military preponderance. In this admirable 

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New German Empire. 209 

practical school the conquerors of 1860 and 1870-71 
were formed. 

In the Prusso-German War of 1866, General 
Werder commanded the 3rd infantry division, 
which took a prominent share in the victory of 
Gitschin, where it forced the corps of the Austrian 
General Eingelhcim back upon the line of retreat 
of Count Clam-Gallas. At the battle of Konig- 
gratz, again, General Werder's Pomeranians gained 
great and well-deserved glory by the cool and 
steady courage with which they, unshaken and un- 
dismayed, withstood a most heavy and destructive 
artillery fire. General Werder had the Ordre pour 
le M^nte bestowed upon him for his services in 
this campaign. 

After the conclusion of peace, General Werder 
was sent back to Stettin, as commander of the 3rd 
infantry division. 

At the outbreak of the Franco-German war of 
1870, General Werder was specially attached to 
the staff of the Crown Prince of Prussia, com- 
mander-in-chief of the third German army. In the 
battle of Worth he commanded the combined corps 
of Wlirtemberg and Baden. 

General Beyer, to whom the siege of Strasburg 
bad been intrusted, fiilling ill. General Werder was 
appointed to succeed him in the command of the 
army collected before Strasburg, which consisted of 
the Baden division {eighteen battidions of infuiitry, 

™»- "• „,?,„,.,Goo8lc 

210 Men who have made the 

twelve squadrons of cavalry, and ten batteries), the 
Prussian Landwehr of the guards division, the first 
Prussian Reaerve-Landwehr division (under the com- 
mand of General Treskow, who subaequently con- 
ducted the siege of Bclfort), the 37th company of 
fortress artillery, one battalion of Prussian pioneers, 
and one company of Bavarian pioneers, — the whole 
numbering above 50,000 effectives. 

It would lead us too far here to give the details 
of the siege of Strasburg. Suffice it to state that 
that fortress capitulated on the 27th of September 
1870, after a siege of about six weeks. On the 
day of the capitulation of Strasburg, Lieutenant- 
General Werder was raised to the rank of general 
of infantry. 

The forces set free by the capitulation of Stras- 
burg were now formed into a separate new corps, 
the fourteenth of the German army, which was 
placed under the command of General Werder. 

To this new corps was joined also the 4th 
Prussian reserve division, which had meanwhile 
been organized at Freiburg, in the Breisgau. 

General Werder had the arduous task assigned 
him to complete the conquest of Alsatia, watch 
over the safety of the conquered province, and pro- 
tect the lines of communication of the great German 
army before Paris, 

To this latter end it was indispensable to stifle 

in the germ, if possible, the organization of fresh 


New German Empire. 

French armies, which was just at this critical junc- 
ture beginning to assume tangible shape and sub- 
stance, and might speedily attain to fonnidable 
proportions if not resolutely met at once, and 
effectually crushed. The fortresses, the natural 
centres of such organization, were therefore neces- 
sarily also the first and chief object of Werder's 
new campaign, 

With a clear and correct appreciation of the actual 
circumstances and of the foe opposed to him, General 
Werder determined upon a bold offensive. 

The grand total of the forces under his command 
might reach some 55,000 effectives. But the Land- 
wehr of the guards division had to be left in Stras- 
burg as a garrison ; iind the 4th reserve division was 
required to besiege and reduce the fortresses of 
Sehlettstadt and Neu Breisaeh. So it was with a 
comparatively very slender force that the general 
had to open the campaign. 

The first task was to clear the Vosges of the 
numerous bands of franc-tireurs who were endea- 
vouring to establish themselves in these quarters. 
On the Ist of October the brigade Degenfeld, which 
formed the vanguard of the 14th corps, moved 
forward on its march through the Vo^s, closely 
followed by the main body of the corps. The German 
troops had to remove enormous abatis and barricades 
from their line of march through the passes ; but there 
was no fighting. 

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212 Men who have made the 

The first serious encounter with the French took 
place on the western slope of the mountain, between 
Kaon L'Etape and St Di^. Six battalions of Baden 
infantry, niunbering bai-ely 4,000 men, had a hard 
6ght with a portion of General Cambriel's army 
(French army of the east), newly formed for the 
defence of the Vosges. 

The French forces, commanded by General Dupr^, 
consisted of some 8,000 regulars of the line and about 
the same number of franc-tireurs ; they were amply 
provided with artillery. Yet, after seven hours' 
desperate fighting. General Dcgenfeld, with his 4,000, 
drove them headlong from the field. The French 
losses eiceded 2,000 men, of whom 300 were killed, 
and 600 made prisoners of war. The Degenfeld 
brigade lost about 400 men in killed and wounded. 
The discomfited French fled in the greatest disorder 
to Besan^on. The blow had so demoralized them, that 
Cambriel's corps was in a few brief days reduced, 
chiefly through wholesale desertion, from 55,000 to 
24,000 men 1 

General Werder had originally been instructed by 
Moltke to march upon Troyes. However, as Cam- 
briel was making desperate efibrts to reorganize his 
forces under the shelter of Besanjon and Belfort, 
the commander of the 14th corps deemed it the 
wiser course first to deal efi'ectively with this enemy 
before starting in search of adventures in the interior 
of France. 

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New German Empire. 

Having obtained General Moltke'a aanction to 
extend his operations to Besan^on, Werder marclied 
upon Vesoul, which was occupied hythe 14th corps 
on the 18th of October, the French retreating pre- 
cipitately to Belfort and Dijon. 

Meaowhilethe French army of the east, re-organized 
by Cambriel and considerably increased in numbers, 
had taken up a strong position on the river Ognon, or 
Oignon (an affluent of the Sadne), at Ruoz and 

General Beyer was directed by Werder to dislodge 
them and throw them back into Besangon. Beyer 
had with him only the Degenfeld brigade, with part 
of Keller's brigade, and the brigade of Prince William 
of Baden and two battalions of regiment No. 30. 
Yet, notwithstanding the very great disproportion of 
numbers, he defeated Cambriel, carrying ail his 
positions, driving him in disorder across the river, 
and finally compelling him to seek shelter once more 
behind the strong walls of Beaanfon. 

This battle, which was fought on the 22nd of 
October, disposed efiectively of the French army of the 
cast for the next fortnight to come at least, ui so far 
as regarded the possible resumption of the oflFensive by 
Cambriel. Moltke's latest instructions had directed 
Werder to march over Dijon to Bourges, a most 
perilous task even for a much larger force than 
Werder had with him then, considering, more par- 
ticularly, the dangerous fact that he would have to 


Men who have made the 

leave in flank and rear the important strongholdB of 
Belfort, Besan^on, Ijangres, and Auxonne. 

However, the march to Dijon and Bourges had to 
be postponed for the time at least, aa a new enemy had 
meanwhile made his appearance on the scene. Gari- 
baldi, to wit, to whom Gambetta had intrusted the 
formation of a new corps, together with the supreme 
command over all bauds of franc-tireurs and other free 
corps in the Vosges. 

The famous Italian chieftain was just then hard at 
work at I)61e to put something like organization into 
his omnium-gatherum mob oi franc-tireurs de VigalitS, 
du Midi, du Douhs, des Vosges, de Nice, de la croix, 
&c. ; Compagnies de la revanche, de la demi-lune, des 
vengeurs, espagnole, polonaise, grecque, ^yptienne (.'), 
franco-espagnole, dc. ; Carahiniers de Genes, Chas- 
seurs de Caprera, de Marseille, d'Oran, du Mont 
Blanc, de VAtkis, &c. 

To provide effectively against any danger that might 
threaten from this quarter. General Werder recrossed 
the Safine, and took up a suitable position at Gray. 
This apparently retrograde movement was hailed by 
the French population around as the result of a total 
defeat inflicted upon the Germans by the army of the 
east. So they arose in insurrection. Numerous 
bauds of franc-tireurs and other volunteers were 

As this movement among the people threatened to 
become dangerous, tho general resolved to put it 

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New German Empire. 

down at once with a strong hand. He proclaimed 
that he would shoot any man taken with arms in his 
hands who should be unable to show that he belonged 
to a corps possessed of some degree of organization 
and forming part of the French army. 

The attempted rising was speedily put down, and 
the country aU around disarmed. Only four men, 
convicted of having treacherously slain German 
soldiers, were shot by the general's ordera 

Garibaldi not yet having completed his organiza- 
tion, it was not thought prudent at Tours to leave 
the great Italian chieftain at D6Ie, where he was 
exposed to a crushing attack by Werder. So Gari- 
baldi was ordered with his corps to Autun, to 
complete his organization there. 

Werder was thus left free to resume his advance 
upon Dijon. As his scouts had brought him certain 
news of the formation of fresh French armies 
proceeding rapidly behind the front of the Gari- 
baldiacs, and as he found the difficulties of the 
transport of his supplies increasing with ievery league 
of advance, he resolved to content himself for the 
time being with the capture and occupation of 
Dijon, and the holding of a strong position at 

On the 27th of October, Prince William of Baden's 
brigade came upon the newly-formed ArmSe de la 
Cdte d'Or. This corps, which was commanded by 
Lavalle, president of the Dijon committee of defence, 


Men who have made the 

barely awaited the attack of the German vanguard, 
but retreated at once precipitately to Dijon. 

The total effective force of General Werder'a ex- 
peditionary corps amounted at this time to tweoty- 
three battalions of infantry, twenty squadrons of 
cavalry, and seventy-two pieces of artillery. 

It had before it the Annie de la C6te d'Or; 
to the south the fortress of Auxonne ; at Besan- 
jon the army of the east, under Cambriel, some 
30,000 strong; on the right flank the fortress of 
Langres, with a garrison of 6,000 ; in the rear, 
Belfort, with a garrison of 10,000. Adding the 
Garibaldians and the numerous bands of franc-tireurs, 
&c., to these, there were certainly French forces 
enough to crush the small Gennao corps among 

On the 30th of October 1870, General Beyer and 
Prince William of Baden assailed Dijon. 

The French had brought up 10,000 men by rail, 
and the citizens, even the women, joined most 
energetically in the defence. The resistance was 
obstinate in the extreme, and the Germans suffered 
heavy losses. But Prince WUIiam of Baden carried 
the heights of St. ApoUinari in gallant style, and 
occupied the suburbs, from which the Germans 
ultimately forced their way into the city, where 
fierce fights from barricade to barricade, from house 
to house, lasted till midnight. 

On the morning of the 31at of October, the ancient 

New German Empire. 

capital of Burgundy waa formally surrendered by the 
mayor. The Io8S of Dijon waa a heavy blow and 
sad discouragement to the French. 

The possession of Belfort being deemed indispen- 
sable to the safety of Alsatia, the Ist reserve division 
under command of General Treskow, was detached 
to lay siege to this most important fortress. 

General Schmeling, who commanded the 4th reserve 
division, had meanwhile paid a visit to Miihlhausen, 
and after an unsuccessful attempt to carry the 
fortress of Neu Breisach by what might be termed a 
coup de homhardement, occupied Colmar, after which 
he laid siege to Schlettstadt, a most important 
point on the railway line from Strasburg to Bale, 
which commands moreover the road to Lun^ville 
and Nancy. 

Schlettstadt surrendered on the 24th of October, 
two days after Werder's victory on the Ognon. 

After the capture of Schlettstadt, Schmeling re- 
sumed the siege of Neu Breisach with the greatest 
vigour, and compelled this fortress also to capitulate 
(10th of November). Fort Mortier had surrendered 
three days before. Pfalzburg and Bitsch were thus 
the only two strong places in Alsatia still remaining 
in the hands of the French. 

The fall of Metz having set free Prince Frederick 
Charles's large army, which was at once pushed on by 
forced marches towards the Loire, there was no longer 
need now of Werder's advance into the interior of 


Men who have made the 

France, and the general could fireely make his dis- 
positions to encounter the many enemies who sur- 
rounded him. 

Werder resolved upon a vigorous offensive in all 
directions. He had only about 22,000 men to 
oppose to some 70,000 foes. 

The French, however, thinking the general had 
received lai^e reinforcements &om the army of Metz, 
gave way at once on all sides. 

On the 14th of November 1870, Werder concen- 
trated his small force about Dijon, ordering the 4th 
reserve division under Sclimeling up to Vesoul. 

Giuibaldi had meanwhile completed the organiza- 
tion of his corps, and had again advanced from 
Autun to the C6te d'Or. He meditated a coup de 
main upon Dijon. 

Werder, who was admirably served by hia scouts, 
knew that a large French force was being concen- 
trated about Lyons ; he also knew that the army 
of the east, now under command of General Michel, 
who had replaced Cambriel, was about to resume the 
offensive. He knew also all about Garibaldi's in- 
tended surprise of Dijon, and he took his precautions 
accordingly. The mayor of Dijon was duly warned 
that the first attempt at a rising would inevitably 
lead to the total destruction of the ancient city, and 
the warning had its due effect. 

On the 26th of November, early in the morning. 
General Dcgcufeld, out upon a i-ocounoitritig expe- 

New German Empire. 219 

dition, discovered that Menotti Garibaldi was ad- 
vancing with a numerous body of Garibaldians from 
the direction of Pasques. 

Just as night was setting in, the outposts of the 
fusilier battalion of the 3rd regiment were vehemently 
attacked. They fell back upon the main body 
of their own battalion, and the battalion Unger. 
These steady soldiers let the assailants come up 
to within fifty yards, when they suddenly opened 
upon them a terribly close and fast fire, which drove 
the Garibaldians back in disorder. 

Three times the same manceuvre was repeated ; 
after the third repidse the Garibaldians took to flight 
in a complete panic, wildly throwing away their arms 
and baggage. 

Next day. General Wei-der, at the head of three 
brigades, assumed the oflFensive. He came up near 
Fasques with a rear-guard that turned out to be a 
portion of the French army of the Loire. The Gari- 
baldians had fled back to Autun, General Keller, 
sent forward in pursuit of the enemy, found a fi-esh 
French corps posted in a strong position at Nuibs, 
south of Dijon. This corps, then some 12,000 
strong, was commanded by General Cremer, late 
captain of the staff in M'Mahon's army. This 
officer was one of the prisoners of Sedan who had 
disgracefully broken his plighted parole, and had been 
raised by Gambetta per saltvm to the rank of general 
uf division, 

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220 Men who have made the 

Cremer, though he had broken his parole, was yet 
an excellent officer. He endeavoured, with great skill 
and pertinacious bravery, to intercept the return of 
Keller's corps to Dijon ; but the men of Baden 
proved more than a match for the utmost efforts of 
the French, and Keller brilliantly effected his junction 
with Werder at Dijon, where the 14th corps was now 
once more concentrated. 

From here Werder despatched General von der 
Goltz with a small corps to lay siege to the fortress 
of Langres. This officer came upon the French, 
strongly posted at Longeau, on the 16th of De- 
cember. He at once attacked them, and, after three 
hours' hard fighting, drove them back into Langres, 
to which he then laid siege. 

General Werder's force at Dijon was now reduced 
to 16,000 effectives; against whom more than 50,000 
French, with a large artillery force, were advancing 
from the south and the C6te d'Or. 

The most immediately dangerous foe was Cremer, 
who had meanwhile raised his force to above 20,000 
men, and was holding a naturally very strong posi- 
tion at Nuits and Pesmes, which he had skilfully 
strengthened still more by field-works. 

Werder resolved to dislodge him from this position. 
The lead of this expedition was intrusted to General 
GlUraer. Werder could only spare him 11,000 men, 
as he was compelled to retain a firm hold upon 

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New Gasman Empire. 221 

On the 18th of December, General Gliimer attacked 
the French, who outnumbered his email force in the 
proportion of two to one at least Cremer defended 
his position most valiantly, and with no mean skill. 
The battle lasted six hours, and it was only at night 
that Nuita was finally carried by the Germans, who 
made some 600 prisoners. 

Cremer retreated upon Ch41on8-sur-Sa6ne, pursued 
by the victorious Germans. The French acknow- 
ledged a loss of 2,200 men. Cremer's corps was so 
shaken by this blow that it took a long time to make 
it fit again for offensive operations. The Germans 
also had suffered heavy losses — amounting to close 
upon 1,100 killed and wounded, including many high 
oflBcers. Prince William of Baden also was severely 
wounded in this battle of Nuits. 

It was about this time that Gambetta conceived 
his truly brilliant and most threateniug plan of an 
invasion of South Germany, which, had it been suc- 
cessful, must not alone have brought unspeakable 
miseries upon the invaded land, but might have 
turaed out a most formidable diversion, and would 
have protracted the war for many months. 

Long ere it was known at head -quarters that 
General Bourbaki had commenced his threateuing 
movement, General Werder received authentic in- 
formation from the German envoy at Perne, Baron 
von Eoder, that the French were concentrating their 
new army of the east, consisting of the 15th, 18th, 


222 Men who have made the 

20th, and 24th corps, between D6Ie and Besan9on, 
and that it was clearly their intention to relieve 
Belfort, and cut the lines of communication of the 
German armies. When General Werder received the 
alarming news of the imminent approach of Bourbaki 
with some 160,000 men, he was not quite sure 
whether it might not be the French commander's 
intention to march upon Nancy, to break the German 
line of communication there ; or whether he really 
purposed to endeavour to raise the siege of Belfort, 
and make his way into Alsatia and thence into t^e 
southern part of Germany. 

But he fully saw and realized at once the im- 
mensity of the danger threatening the cause of 
Germany (^rom that quarter, no matter which of 
the two, Nancy or Belfort, might form the proximate 
object of Bourbaki's intended operations. 

With prompt decision he determined to abandon 
Dijon immediately. He ordered General von der 
Goltz to raise the siege of Langres, and rejoin him with 
his corps. On the 27th of December, the Germans 
left Dijon, and made their way by forced marches to 

The 4th reserve division, set free by the capitu- 
lation of Schlettstadt and Neu Breiaach, was ordered 
up to VUlcrsexel, some eighteen English miles to the 
west of Belfort. 

In this well-chosen flank position at Vesoul and 
VUlersexel, which was adrainibly adapted to meet 


New German Empire. 223 

all eventualities, Werder resolved to watch the course 
of events. 

General Treskow, in command of -the Ist reserve 
division, had laid siege to Belfort on the 3rd of 
November. Exactly one month after the German 
batteries had opened their fire upon the place. 
To cover the operation of the siege in the west, 
General Debschitz had been ordered up with eight 
battalions of Landwehr. 

From the 3rd to the 8th of January, 1871, tlie 
Germans were victorious in a series of small recon- 
noitring fights at Vellcfaux, Villersec, L^vrecy, and 
Velle le Ch4tel, from which Werder gained the 
certainty that the immense army of the east (some 
160,000 men) was moving to the right upon Belfort. 

It was of the utmost importance that he should 
arrive there before them. He had already con- 
templated an eventuality of this nature, and had 
partly provided against it, by selecting an excellent 
position on the Lisaine or Luxienne, which was well 
adapted to cover the siege of Belfort. 

On the 7th of January 1871, Werder resolved to 
attack the enemy's left wing. The French de- 
clined the combat, which fully confirmed Werder's 
opinion that they were moving to the right upon 

So on the 9th of January, he fell upon Bourbaki's 
left flank with fierce impetuosity. On the German 
side the Baden division was chiefly engaged, on 


Men who have wade the 

the French side the 18th and 20th corps. Bourbaki 
commanded in person. 

The possession of Villersexel was the chief object 
of the fight. 

Villersexel is a small place in the arrondissement 
Lure, Haute-Sa6ne. It lies at the confluence of 
the rivers Ognon and Scey, on the road from Vesoul 
to H^ricourt and Montbdiiard. 

The German attack was made with extraordinary- 
vigour. Villersexel was carried by storm, Moimay 
and Marat sharing the same fate. This latter place 
was taken in the evening. All attacks made by the 
French, who brought more and more considerable 
forces into the field, were victoriously repulsed. 

The whole French army was brought to a stand- 
still. Bourbaki was thorouglily convinced that the 
German attack would be renewed in the morning 
of the 10th, and made his dispositions aecorfUngly. 

His conviction that a renewal of the battle was 
intended for next day vas strengthened by the 
entire apparent bearing of Werder, who actually 
had a bridge thrown over the Ognon, in Bourbaki's 
right flank. 

Werder, however, having thus craftily misled his 
antagonist, marched quietly ofl" in the night of 
the 9th-10th of January, the general with his 
staffs hastening on in advance to the position marked 
out from Delle to Lure, to make his final prepara- 
tions for the impending titanic struggle. 


Hew ijerman Empire. 

A forced march, rendered peculiarly difl&cult by 
the deep snowdrifts and the slippery state of the 
roads, brought the whole of the troops to the 
intended position on the Uth of January. 

On the morning of the lOtb of January Bourbaki 
had found, to his intense amazement and grief, that 
the Germans were clean gone. 

The battle of Villersexel had inflicted severe losses 
upon the French. Besides many killed and wounded, 
they lost also two guns, two eagles, and some 800 
unwouuded prisoners, with two superior officers and 
fourteen subalterns, 

The whole of Werder's forces, with every man 
counted whom Treskow could possibly spare .from 
the siege of Belfort, amounted to forty-eight weak 
battalions, with whom the general had to hold a 
moat extended position. The force of the assailants 
was fourfold stronger. The defence had to be made, 
moreover, with a strong well-garrisoned hostile for- 
tress in the rear, and under the threatening danger 
of a sortie en masse from that fortress, which would 
place the German defenders of the extended line 
from Lure to Delle between two fires. 

General Werder was not a whit dismayed, how- 
ever. His old Caucasian experience of the defence 
of extended mountain positions stood him in ex- 
cellent stead now. He knew he could fully rely 
upon General Treskow, to whom he left the difficult 
task of watching and engaging the Belfort garrison, 

VOT, TT. '5 ^ , 

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Men who have made the 

and warding off any danger that might threaten 
from that quarter. 

The position chosen covered not alone the siege of 
Belfort, but also Alsatia and southern Germany. 

The Lisaine, or Luxienne, a brook some three to 
four feet deep, flanked on both banks by marshy 
meadows, constituted the principal line of defence, 
extending some eight English miles in length. The 
left flank rested on the AUaine and the Rhine and 
Rhone canal, which runs parallel with it. The left 
wing found a most valuable point of support in 
the old castle of Montb^liard, which Werder had 
mounted with heavy artillery, garrisoned by an ade- 
quate force, and amply stored with provisiooH and 
ammunition for twenty-one days. 

General Werder established his head-quarters at 
Br^villiers, near H^ricourt, which formed the centre 
and key of the position. 

H^ricourt lies in the valley of the Luxienne, 
which is commanded, in the direction of Belfort as 
well as in that of Arcey, by thickly-wooded moun- 
tains, and through which runs the high road from 
Besanjon to Belfort. 

To guard gainst all chances of being outflanked, 
the German line of defence had to be extended from 
Frahier over Echevanne, Chenebier, and Chagey to 
Lure; thence to H^ricourt, the key of the posi- 
tion ; from H^ricourt southward, over Bussarel and 
Bethoncourt, to Montb^liard, and from Montb^liard 


New German Empire. 

finally eastward to Delle, or Dattenried, on the 
Swiss frontier. 

General Treakow had sent up thirty-six heavy 
position guns, which were judiciously placed on 
Mont les Baragues, at ChaloosviUars, and other 
important points. Other parts of the line were held 
by battalions of infantry, with field-batteries placed 
at proper intervals between them. All villages and 
places along the line were thoroughly got ready for 
the most obstinate defence, riile-pits being dug, 
and barricades and abatis placed at all suitable 

By noon of the 13th of January all preparations 
were fully completed. Whilst the front of the 
position was defended by the Baden division, the 
4th reserve division, and part of the Ist reserve 
division, eight battalions of Landwehr, under com- 
mand of General Debschitz, covered the.ground south 
of the AUaine up to the Swiss frontier. Three regi- 
ments of cavalry, under Colonel Williaen, were 
pushed forward in front of the right wing, to harass 
the left flank of the advancing enemy. 

To General von Schmeling, the conqueror of 
Schlettstndt and Neu Breisach, was intrusted the 
command of the centre at H^ricourt ; Gfeneral von 
Debschitz commanded on the left wing, General 
von der Goltz on the right, where General von 
Degenfeld was placed with the Baden division. 
Generals GlUmer and Keller led the reserves. 


Men who have made the 

General Werder himself took up his positiou 
in the centre of the line of defence, near Les 
Barques, where he could keep up constant com- 
munication with the field-telegraph at Br^villiera 
through cavalry relays. 

The prelude to the ball was opened on the morn- 
ing of the 13th of January, when the small German 
vanguard, which had been stationed on the other 
bank of the Lisaine, was attacked by overwhelming 
numbers, and compelled to &11 back across the 

On the morning of the 14th of January the 
Germans stood in their position, fully prepared and 
ready to receive the French onset. 

A simple change in the weather had meanwhile, 
in the course of the preceding night, very conader- 
ably altered the aspect of affairs, and chi^ged the 
prospects of the German defence very much for the 

The thennometer had suddenly dropped to zero 
on Fahrenheit's scale, which means 14 to 15 degrees 
cold on Reaumur's scale. . The Lisaine and the 
swampy meadows along its banks, which had the 
day before constituted the chief bulwark of the 
defence, were now solidly frozen over, opposing thus 
no further obstacle to the advance of the French. 

General Werder correctly estimated the full import 
of the change. He did not conceal from himself the 
danger which he might incur of the destruction of 


New German Empire, 

his corps, or, at least, the loss of his artillery, if he 
accepted the fight in this position against an enemy 
four times his own numerical strength under the 
now so vastly altered circumstances of the ease. 

His mind, indeed, was not shaken in the least. 
He was not dismayed by the extreme danger of his 
position. He remained foUy resolved to fight to 
the last man and the last bullet for the safety of 
South Germany. But he wished not to incur the 
sole, undivided responsibility of the event ; so he 
telegraphed to head-quarters for instructions. The 
answer, which fully accorded with his own resolu- 
tion, reached him only on the evening of the 15th 
of January, when the first fierce onslaught of the 
French masses had been triumphantly repulsed. 

The struggle began on the 15th of January, 1871. 

Bourbaki directed the 20th corps coming up from 
Villersexel against the right wing of the Germans, 
the 18th corps, with the 24th corps in reserve, against 
the centre at H^ricourt, and the 15th corps against 
the left wing. Numerous field-batteries and several 
batteries of mitrailleuses were brought to the French 

The French attack was made with the utmost 
vigoiir. The artillery played the principal part in 
it. The battle raged for nine hours — from 8.30 A.M, 
to 5.30 P.M. Of course, with the overwhelming 
superiority of numbers on the side of the French, 
there could be no question of offensive operations 


Men who have made the 

on the part of the Germans, who had, on the con- 
trary, to strain every nerve to hold their extended 
line of defence, and more especially H^ricourt, the 
key of the position, the fall of which would certainly 
have led to the most disastrous consequences for 

After a hard struggle the French succeeded in 
gaining possession of Champey and some others 
of the less important points. They also succeeded 
in establishing field batteries at Byan and Tavez, 
and ou the wooded heights around, which up to four 
in the afternoon hailed down an incessant storm of 
projectiles upon the ground in front of them, the 
French infantry trying meanwhile their utmost 
to break through the German positions, but without 
success. The destructive fire of the German batteries, 
and the cool, steady bravery of the German infantry, 
which was brought up incessantly and indefatigably 
to every point seriously threatened by the enemy, 
proved too much for the French. They could not 
even gain an additional foot of ground. Their last 
attempt was made upon Chagey. It failed like the 
rest When night put an end to the struggle, the 
position of the two armies remained still nearly the 
same as it had been in the morning. 

The Germans had to bivouac on the battle-field, 
without fire, the whole of the bitterly cold night of 
the I5th-16th of January, when the thermometer 
fell to sixteen degrees cold on K^aumur'a scale. 


New German Empire. 

At break of day the Germana were ready again 
in their old positions. A thick fog covered the valley 
of the Lisaine, which cleared up only at noon suf- 
ficiently to permit the artillery to join in the 

Bat despite the fog, the small-arms fire began at 
7.30 A.M. The French tried hard to break through 
the German positions in the centre and on the left 
wing. They made most desperate efforts to seize 
the old Castle of Montb^liard. 

At five o'clock in the afternoon the battle was 
suspended, but at eight o'clock it was renewed once 
more with the utmost fierceness, more especially on 
the left wing, where the French tried to carry by 
nocturnal surprise the positions &om which they 
had been repulsed in the day. Here the fight lasted 
till two o'clock in the morning of the 17th. 

All assaults of the French upon the centre and 
the left wing had been gallantly repulsed. 

On the right wing, however, the assailants had 
been partially successful. Here the 18th French 
corps and Cremer's two divisions had thrown 
themselves upon General Degenfeld's three bat- 
talions and three batteries, and had, after ten 
hours' fierce fighting, succeeded at last in com- 
pelling Degenfeld to leave Chenebier and Frahier 
in their hands, and retreat to a strong position in 
the rear, which had been provided and prepared 
for Buch a contingency. 

Digilized by Google 

Men who have made the 

"VVerder, who fully understood the disastrous con- 
sequences that must result from further successes 
of the enemy on the right wing, and who had no 
more reserves to bring up, ordered General Keller 
to recapture the lost positions without delay by 
Doctumal surprise. The general's attack proved 
eminently successful. Frahier was carried by storm, 
and Chenebier by surprise. In the latter village 
seven French officers and 400 men were made 

General Treskow sent also three twenty-four 
pounder position pieces from Belfort to strengthen 
the defences on the right wing. These heavy pieces 
had to be dragged up all the way by men. 

On the morning of the 17th of January, at about 
eight o'clock, the French made repeated attacks upon 
Chagey, which were repulsed. A vehement assault 
upon Bethoncomt, 8Jid several fierce attacks upon 
Montbdliard, shared the same fate. 

About noon the French offensive began to slacken 
perceptibly. Columns of the enemy were seen to 
march ofif in a westerly direction. Rifle-pits were 
being dug at many points, and other defensive 
measures adopted by the French. 

At four o'clock in the afternoon the French 
essayed a last overwhelming attack upon the positions 
occupied by General Keller. Tliey succeeded in 
retaking Chenebier, but failed in their most desperate 
aaaaulta upon Frahier. 

Digilized by Google 

New German Empire. 233 

Soon after a general advance of the German forces 
over Chagey and Echevanne ended in the final repulse 
of the French along the whole line. 

Bourbaki, thus foiled in his modt desperate efibrta 
to break through the German line of defence thrown 
between him and Belfort, saw at last that there 
was naught left him now but to secure a safe 

The fortress of Belfort had remained all the whUe 
perfectly quiescent, though the garrison must have 
heard the incessant thunder of artillery. 

On the morning of the 18th of January it was 
found that the great French host had marched off. 
General Werder immediately ordered the movements 
of the retreating enemy to be vigilantly followed. 

A pursuit en masse was altogether out of the 
question. The German troops required a few days' 
rest at least afcer their almost superhuman exertions. 
It was only on the 20th of January that the Baden 
'division could start in pursuit, executing a general 
evolution to the left, in order to compel the French 
to fall ■ back in the direction of the Doubs. 

The French had suffered very heavy losses in this 
three days' desperate struggle. Their casualties in 
kUIed and wounded amounted to some 7,000 men, 
besides which they lost 2,000 prisoners. Two French 
eagles and one standard were also taken. 

The German losses amounted altogether to some 
60 ofBcers and 2,200 men killed and wounded. 


Men who have, made the 

The ulterior operations of Werder and his corps 
were executed in conjunction with the army of the 
south under ManteufFel, of which the 14th corps 
formed part since the 9th of January. 

Werder had saved South Germany from the un- 
speakable horrors of a French invasion. Manteuffel 
completed subsequently what Werder had so well 
begun. Manteufiel's part of the task was com- 
paratively easy, as Bourbaki's ■ defeat before Werder's 
line of defence had well-nigh thoroughly demoralized 
the huge French force commanded by that general. 

The Emperor William — the new German empire 
had been proclaimed at Versailles on the 18th of 
January, the day after Bourbaki's last desperate 
attempt to break through Werder's position — appre- 
ciated at its just value the immense service rendered 
to Germany by General Werder through his stubborn 
and heroic defence. 

He tendered his warm thanks to the general in a 
special letter written with his own hand. He aenC 
htm also the oak-leaves to wear with the Ordre pour 
le Merite, and the Grand Crosa of the Red Eagle, 
with swords ; and on the 22nd of March he 
bestowed upon him, as a crowning distinction, the 
Grand Cross of the Iron Cross, which Werder shares 
with only six other leaders of the German army, 
viz., the Crown Prince of Germany, Prince Frederick 
Charles, King Albert of Saxony, Field-Marshals 
Moltke and ManteufTel, and General Goben. 

by Google 

New German Em/yire. 

Altogether General Werder is grand croes of ei^t 
of the principal order& 

After the conclusion of peace General Werder was 
definitively appointed to the command-in-chief of the 
14th corps of the German army, which consists 
chiefly of the Baden contingent. The head-quarters 
are at Carhoiihe. 

General Werder is also chief of the 4th Rhenan 
infantry regiment. No. 30. 

The German people, more especially those of the 
south of Germany, have worthily manifested their 
deep sense of gratitude to the general. 

Many cities have proudly enrolled him among 
their honorary citizens. The University of Freihui|; 
has bestowed upon him the honorary degree of doctor 
of laws. Swords of honour, silver helmets, sUver 
shields, silver cups, magnificent editions of the Bible, 
consignments of rare wines, and other precious gifts 
have literally rained in upon him. 

The sculptor, Moest, of Carlsruhe, is at present 
engaged upon a memorial monument, which is 
shortly to be erected at Freiburg in honour of 
General Werder and his brave troops. 

by Google 

Men who have made the 


The Bavarian troops played a prominent part, and 
had a very considerable share, in some of the hardest- 
fought fights and the moat dearly-bought successes 
of the ever- memorable Franco-German war of 
1870-71. The two commanders of the Bavarian 
contingent, Generals von der Tann and Hartmann, 
are therefore justly entitled to figiu^ in the glorious 
list of the great war-chiefs who have contributed so 
largely to the creation of the new German empire. 

Baron Ludwig Samson von der Tann-Kathsam- 
hauscn is descended fixim one of the principal branches 
of an ancient baronial family, widely spread through 
Francony and Hesse. 

He was born on the 18th of June, 1815, on the 
day of the great battle of Waterloo, which finally 
put to rest all apprehensions of the possible resump- 
tion of the detested French sway over the fair land 
of Germany. 

His father, Baron Heinrich von und zu der Tann, 
who died in 1848, was chamberlain to King Louis I. 


New German Empire. 237 

of Bavaria, a lieutenant-colonel in the Bavarian army, 
and one of the chief district inspectors of the national 
militia. He enjoyed the intimate friendship of the 
king, who appointed young Louis one of his own 
pages when almost in his cradle, and had the boy 
educated with the greatest care at the Pages' Institute. 

Young Louis, however, declined to enter the 
brilliant court career so temptingly opening before 
him. His mind waa set upon sterner and more 
arduous pursuits. He was resolved to be a soldier, 
and with characteristic firmness carried his point 
against the wish of his father and the will of the 

He was barely eighteen when he obtained a com- 
mission as second lieutenant in the Bavarian artillery. 
Unlike most young oEBcers of noble birth who were 
serving at that time in the South German armies, 
more for the allurement of the glittering outer 
trappings and the charm of an idle, indolent life of 
pleasure than for love of the service, the young 
artillery lieutenant took his pursuit au grand 
s&rieux, and threw himself into the study of all 
branches of the profession of his choice with all the 
ardour of his temperament and all the assiduous 
steadfastness of his disposition. 

He soon gained the reputation of a singularly 
well-informed oflScer ; and in 1840 he was, despite his 
youth, and although he had only attained the rank of 
first lieutenant, appointed to an important position on 


Men who have made the 

the general staff of the army. His promotaon to the 
rank of captain followed soon after. 

In 1844, the king, who by this time had got over 
his disappointment about the slighted pageship, and 
who remained to the laat day of his life Tann's well- 
afiected patron, made the bnlliant young staff officer 
adjutant to the Crown Prince Maximilian. 

This position, in which he was after a time promoted 
to the rank of major, he held four years, up to 1848, 
when the German rising in Schleswig-Holstein 
impelled him irresistibly to devote his sword and his 
talents to the patriotic cause of the Elbe duchies. He 
obtained King Maximilian's permission (King Louis 
having abdicated in March, 1848), and the sanction 
of the Ministry of War, to take the command of a 
German free corps in the duchies, where he gained 
some brilliant successes over the Danes, more 
especifdly in the great surprise of Hoptrupp, on the 
7th of June, 1848. The government of Schleswig- 
Holstein bestowed his name upon one of their new 
gunboats in graceful acknowledgment of his important 
services in the war. 

In 1849 he acted as chief of the staff to Prince 
Ernest of Saie-Altenburg, who commanded one of the 
divisions of the Schleswig-Holstein forces. In 1850 
he was made colonel and chief of the staff of the 
army under Geueral Willisen. 

After the sad collapse of the German cause in the 
duchies, Colonel Tann returned to Bavaria, resuming 

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New German Empire. 

his old position as aide-de-camp to King Maximilian, 
with whom he continued as great a favourite aa he 
had been with King Louis. 

He was soon promoted to the rank of major- 
general, and in 1860 he was made lieutenant-general, 
and had the command of a division bestowed upon 
him. His promotion had been exceptionally rapid : 
it had only taken him twenty-seven years to reach 
the high grade of divisional commander, whereas it 
took his friend and fellow-commander Hartmann more 
than fifty years to achieve the same position ; but 
then Hartmann, who certainly was in nearly every 
way as brilliant an officer and as excellent a soldier as 
Tann, was not so much of a special royal favourite 
as the latter had the good fortune to be. 

Kin g Maximilian, one of the best and most en- 
lightened rulers of the small kingdom of Bavaria, 
died on the 10th of March, 1864, at the early age 
of fifty-diree. He died, unhappily, at a roost critical 
jimcture — ^just when the temporary forced league 
between Austria and Prussia for the conquest of the 
Elbe duchies was laying the germ for the fierce 
war almost sure to follow between these two most 
unnatural allies. Had King Maximilian lived, the 
chances of the possible avoidance of the great in- 
testine contest in Germany, which broke out subse- 
quently in 1866, would certainly have been much 
more promising than they turned out to be after. 
King Maximilian would surely have given Von der 


240 Men who have made the 

Pfordten very different irtstructioos from those given 
to the Bavarian ambassador to the German Confedera- 
tion by his son and successor, Louia, who was really 
too young and inexperienced at the time to fully 
realize the actual position of affairs, and to under- 
stand the true interests of South Germany, and who 
was surrounded and ear-wigged by a most uncom- 
promising Ultramontaniat, anti-Prussian clique. 

Baron von der Pfordten finding himself abso- 
lutely unrestricted by pacific or cautious iDstructionB 
from his king and court, joiaed with Beust, Vam- 
biiler, Dalwigk, and the Hanoverian Platen in the 
nefarious and ill-considered plot to humble Prussia. 
The participation of Soutb Germany in the war of 
1&66 was the natural consequence of this most 
absurd policy. 

General von der Tann, a man of the wannest 
German feelings, bitterly deplored the share which 
his beloved country was going to take in this 
fratricidal war. The Ultramontanist scribblers and 
gabblers prated insanely of the formidable military 
force which the South German states, jointly with 
Saxony and Hanover, could put into the field — exceed- 
ing half a million of effectives, it was asserted by 
those ignorant twaddlers and their aiders and abettors 
in the British press of that day. Tann knew better. 
He knew that the boasted South German host 
was a huge myth and gross deception, and that 
150,000 men was the highest figure the South 


yeuj German Empire. 241 

German states could possibly put into the field. 
He also knew that, although the soldiering material 
might do well enough, the command was safe to be 
placed in Eiuch incompetent and incapable hands, that 
there would be but little chance of success against 
the Prussians under the leadership of the smartest 
and most efficient commanders of the age. 

He clearly foresaw the whole disastrous issue and- 
result of the affair, and he consented only most 
reluctantly to take upon his shoulders the h^hly 
responsible office and duties of chief of the staff to 
Field-Marshal Prince Charles of Bavaria, to whom 
the supreme command over the Bavarian army and 
the whole of the South German forces, including 
an Austrian division under Neipperg, had been 
intrasted, with the stupid Austrian proviso that 
the commander-in-chief should always act in accord- 
ance with the instructions that were to come to 
him &om the Austrian head-quarters and from the 
Emperor Francis Joseph's military cabinet — a pro- 
viso which could not but helplessly lame the initia- 
tive of the commander of the South German forces 
and his chief of the staff. 

The command of the 8th corps of the German 
Confederation army, consisting of the contingents 
of Baden, WUrtembei^, Hesse, electoral and grand- 
ducal, Nassau, and Frankfort, were given by King 
ChfU'les of Wtirtemberg, with whom the appointment 
lay, to another incapable — Prince Alexander of Hesse, 

VOL. n. • R,..„,Googk' 

24:j Men who have made the 

to wit, who was said to have distinguished himself 
greatly at Solferinol 

TaDD knew beforehand how little chance there 
was of the Bavarian commaiider-in-chief and bis 
Heasian coadjutor pulling well together, and that 
there was still less Hkebhood of concerted action of 
the mixed host in obedience to his own directions 
and iniitractions. He felt convinced, also, that the 
fault and blame of the disastrous failure which he 
foresaw would be laid at his door ; so no wonder that 
he went into the struggle half-hearted, and with the 
saddest forebodings, destined to be soon realized 6ven 
beyond the extent of his direst apprehensions. 

The first great trouble he had to deal with was the 
Hanoverian army. The neat UtUe plot hatched be- 
tween Gablentz, the Auguetenburg pretender, and the 
King of Hanover, to march with united forces upon 
Berlin, had been nipped in the bud by Manteufiel's 
rapid and energetic proceedings. The Hanoverian 
forces, cut off from Stade, where vast stores and 
supplies had been collected for their use, were 
marched into the province of Gottingen, with a 
view to their hanty organization for war. 

This Hanoverian army was as fine a body of 
men as were ever marched into the field. Had 
they been boldly pushed forward through the 
Thuringian forest from Eisenach, where they had 
taken up their station on the 21st of June, they 
might safely have joined the Bavarian forces, which 

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New German Empire. 

were coming up to the Saxon duchies to meet 
them. But this troop of lions was led by blind 
King George and hia equally blind military advisers. 
The king had the conceited notion that he could 
outwit Bismarck in diplomatic negotiations. He 
rejected Prussia's very fair offers of an understand- 
ing with him, yet he kept on treating with the 
Prussians, in the foolish expectation that the whole 
of the Bavarian army would come bodUy up to 
him, to drive the Prussians out of the land ; and 
whilst thus idly negotiating, he led his splendid 
army in purposeless marches from Eifleoach to 
Langensalza, back again to Eisenach, then once more 
to Langensalza. Meuiwhile, the active Prussians were 
rapidly bringing up troops from Berlin, Erfurt, and 
Torgau, until nearly every loop-hole of escape, 
through which the Hanoverians might have forced 
their way to the Bavarian army, was efiectually 
shot up. 

On the 27th of June, when time and opportunity 
might fairly be considered all but gone, the king 
and his advisers resolved at last to make an efibrt 
to go to the Bavarians, as it was quite clear the 
Bavarians were not coming to them. But General 
Flies, with only 9,000 men under his command, 
boldly attacked the Hanoverians, who outnumbered 
his troops in the proportion of two to one at least ; 
and, although he was defeated by numbers, and 
by the brilliant valour of the Hanoverians, more 

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Men wlio have made the 

eqwcially their truly splendid cavalry, he succeeded 
in retaiuiDg the Hanoverian forces at Laogensalza, 
whilst Vogel TOD Falckenstein was closing the 
net around them. On the day after, the 28th of 
June, the army of King George, surrounded on all 
udes, capitulated to the Prussian general. 

Among the many false and foolish charges which 
were subsequently insinuated i^ainst General von 
der Tann, figured, of course, also this, that he had 
wilfully and corruptly abandoned the Hanoverians to 
their fate I The general would have deserved to be 
ignominiously dismissed the service had he advised 
his commander to march his troops into Hanover. 
The blame of the failure of the projected junction 
of the Bavarians and Hanoverians must be laid 
entirely at the door of King George and his generals, 
who spoiled everything by their gross incapacity 
and helpless irresolution. 

Having thus satisfactorily disposed of his Hano- 
verian opponents, Vogel von Falckenstein prepared 
at ODce for a most vigorous offensive against the 
numerically much more formidable hostile hosts of 
the South German states. He had only three divi- 
sions under his command, to wit, the divisions of 
Manteiiffel, Gobeo, and Beyer, the whole of his 
available forces not exceeding 50,000 effectives. 

The Bavarian army, under the command of Prince 
Charles of Bavaria, might number some 60,000 
effectives. On paper the figure reached 80,000. 
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New Geiinan Empire. 

The 8th corps, under Prince Alexander of Hesse, 
numbered between 60,000 and 70,000_ effectives. 
Either host was accordingly much stronger than 
the entire force of the so-called Prussian army of 
the Main, whilst the two bodies combined seemed 
sufficiently powerful to easily crush the Prussians 
between them. 

But the great Prussian commandw, after concen- 
trating his forces at Eisenach on the Ist of July, 
pushed them like a wedge between the two South 
German armies. The 8th corps under Prinee Alex- 
ander of Hesse was holding a positicm at the time 
to the north of Frankfort-on-the-Main, whilst the 
Bavarians under Prince Charles occupied the valley 
of the Fulda, with two divisions pushed forwaid to 
Dermbaeh. A strong body of Bavarian cavalry 
was ordered to seek to establish a junction with 
the 8th corps. 

This plan, devised by General von der Tann, 
seemed clearly indicated by the actual position of 
affairs, and might have placed the Prussians in an 
awkward strait, had only the execution even re- 
motely equalled the conception. But, unluckily for 
the chief of the staff, the event turned out far 
otherwise. Indeed, it may fairly be said that, 
throughout this campaign, so disastrous to the South 
German armies, the glaring incapacity and the gross 
blundering of the tactical leaders in the field thwarted, 
nearly every one of Tann's strategic conceptions. 


Afen who have made the 

It was on the 4tb of July that the vanguard 
of Beyer's diTision, advancing along the high road 
to Geysa, came into collision with^the strong body 
of Bavarian cavalry ordered to seek to establish 
a junction with the 8th corps. When this body 
of cavalry found itself suddcDly and unexpectedly 
assailed by a heavy artillery fire, it was thrown into 
disorder and retreated precipitately, leaving the 
Prussians free to rush on between the two corps. 

At the same time General Goben had received 
orders to advance beyond Dermbaeh and drive back 
any hostile forces he should come across there ; after 
which he was to break off the fight and return to 
Dermbaeh, that he might afterwards prepare for the 
further advance of the army by taking his station 
en ichelons at Geysa. Goben executed the order most 
brilliantly ; he took Wiesenthal, Zella, and Neidharts- 
hausen, and finally also the strong position which the 
Bavarians held on the Nebelberg. 

Having accomplished his object, he fell back upon 
Dermbaeh in obedience to the orders of his commander- 
in-chief. This the poor Bavarians mistook for a 
" retreat," and indulged in somewhat overloud songs 
of triumph accordingly. They soon discovered their 
mistake, however, and hastened to move back south- 
ward, with a view to find some other way to join 
the 8th corps, which on its part drew nearer to 

The advancing Prussians found Fidda abandoned. 

New Qermcm Empire. 247 

The Bavarian anny had taken up a strong positiou 
along ike Franconian Sale river, behind the Rhon 
Mountains. This position also had been very well 
selected by General Tann, as it enabled the Bavarians 
to threaten the left flank of the Prussians, But on 
the 9th of July, Vogel von Falekenstein, moving 
suddenly to the left, crossed into Bavaria, and on 
the 10th of July, General Goben took Kissingen 
and the heights behind by storm, and kept his 
conquest against the repeated desperate efforts of 
the Bavarian reserves, whilst Beyer had a successful 
engagement at Hammelburg, and Manteuffel, who 
bad followed, defeated the Bavarian troops opposed 
to him at Waldaschach and Hansen. In the fierce 
flght at Kissingen, General Tann was slightly 

Prince Charles now retreated to Sebweinfurt, when 
Vogel von Falekenstein quite unexpectedly marched 
upon Aschafienburg. Prince Alexander of Hesse, 
at last thoroughly roused to the danger of this 
Prussian move, despatched the Hessian and Aus- 
trian divisions in hot haste &om Frankfort to defend 
the most important position of Aschafienburg, and 
keep the Prussians if possible horn getting across 
the Main. 

But the Hessians were defeated on the 13th of 
July at Frohnhofen and Laufach, and the Austrians 
on the 14th before Aschafienburg, which place was 
ultimately stormed by the Prussians. Hereupon . 

Men who have made the 

Prince Alexander evacuated Frankfort in great haate, 
and the Prussian general entered the ancient free 
dty on the 1 6th of July. Bieberich and Darmstadt 
also were occupied by the victorious Prussians. . 

How ManteufFel replaced Falckenstein on the 19th 
of July has already been narrated in the memoirs 
of the two Prussian commanders. 

Meanwhile, the junction of the Bavarians with the 
8th corps had been effected at last near Wiirzburg. 
The Prussian army of the Main, now reinforced to 
some 60,000 effectives, followed the South Germans, 
aod on the 24th of July crossed the Tauber, carryiag 
the Hessian position at Wertheim, the WUrtembeig 
portion at Tauberbischo&heim, and the portion of the 
Baden division at Werbach. 'ITie fight at Tauber- 
bischofsheim was particularly severe. Five times the 
WUrtembergers, commanded by Generd Hardegg, 
the Minister of War for the kingdom, tried their 
hardest to regain the positions lost to the Prussians ; 
but it was all in vain. In this hot fight the WUr- 
temberg division suffered a loss of sixty men (nine 
officers among them) killed and 450 wounded. 

The 8th corps nuw took up a strong position at 
Gerehsheim, the Bavarians at Helmstadt and Uet- 
tingen, with Wiirzburg in the rear. 

On the 25th of July G6ben attacked the 8th 
, corps at Gerehsheim, Beyer the Bavarians at 

Pushed up in a corner as it were, Prince Charles 

New German Empire. 

nov resolved to assume the offensive. He carried 
this resolution into effect on the 26th of July, relying 
upon the aid and support of the 8th corps. But the 
same fatality which had pursued the South Germans 
throughout this campaign was experienced here once 
more : the Prince of Hesse failed to join in the &ay, 
and, after a hotly-contested fight at Uettingen and 
Rossbrunn, the advance of General Beyer from Helm- 
stadt, threatening the left flank and the line of retreat 
of the Bavarians, compeUed the South German forces 
to retreat behind the Main, and take up their posi^ 
tion east of WUrzburg, This latter city, or rather the 
fortress of Marienberg which defends it, was can- 
nonaded from field -pieces on the 27th of July. 
Soon after, the news of the armistice concluded 
between the belligerents put a stop to further 

When the war was over the disappointed Ultra- 
montanista set all their organs in the press to 
work at asaaUiug the reputation of General Tann 
— stupendous incapacity was the mildest charge in- 
sinuated against him ; most of these vile assailants 
accused him point-blank of premeditated corrupt trea- 
son to his king and his country. The general saw 
himself literally compelled to seek the protection of 
the law against these unscrupulous calumniators; and 
the law, appealed to, came to his aid, clearing his 
unsullied reputation, and punishing the loudest and 
vilest yelpers of the pack. 

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In January, 1869, Tann was made general of 
infiantry, and received the command of the lat 
corps of the Bavarian army. When the Fraoco- 
German war broke out iu 1870, the whole of the 
Bavarian contingent, consisting of the 1st corpa 
mider General von der Tann, and the 2nd corps 
under General Hartmann, -was placed as part of the 
third army under the orders of the C3rown Prince 
of Prussia. 

General von der Tann and the corps commanded 
by him took a leading share in the great battles of 
Worth, Beaumont, and Sedan. In this last crowning 
victory over M'Mahon's army it fell to the share of 
the Bavarians to carry Bazeilles, a small place of 
some 2.000 inhabitants, situate upon the right 
bank of the Meuse, a little more than half an 
English mile from Sedan. The fight here ranked 
among the most hotly contested of the cam- 
paign. It began at 4.30 a.m., and raged uninter- 
ruptedly for six full hours. The inhabitants took 
part in it by firing at the Bavarians fixim the win- 
dows. They also cruelly ill-used some unhappy 
wounded Germans who were at their mercy. This 
led to some excesses afterwards on the part of the 
enraged Bavarian soldiery, to which Tann enei^ 
getically put a stop. 

It was asserted at the time in certain organs of 

the British press that Bazeilles had been razed to 

the ground by the vengeful Germans, who had ^so 

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New German Empire. 

made a general massacre of tbe inhabitaDts — ^men, 
women, and children. There were even some Eng- 
lish gentlemen found seemingly so lost to all moral 
sense of veracity as to vouch for horrors pre- 
tended to have been perpetrated by the Germans, 
which had no foundation whatever in truth, but 
were the merest shadowy offspring of the excited 
imagination of the narrators. A great French noble- 
man of Stuart extraction — the Duke Fitzjames — 
was not ashamed to stamp these baseless inventions 
with the authority of his own high name 9x a 
pretended eye-witness of the cruelties perpetrated 
by the German barbarians. 

General Tann's name and fame were thus covered 
with obloquy and ignominy. The general never 
protested against the gross injustice done him. He 
patiently bided his time, which came the year after, 
when the mayor and corporation of Bazeilles, of their 
own free accord, published a plain statement of facta, 
which triumphantly showed how wilfully the general 
and his troops had been maligned. 

When it became evident, in the beginning of 
October, that the government of Tours were massing 
considerable forces behind the Loire, with the mani- 
fest intention of trying to raise the siege of Paris, 
an expeditionary army was formed, consisting of the 
Ist Bavarian corps, the 22nd in£intry division, and 
the 2nd and 4th cavalry divisions, and placed und^ 
the command of General von dcr Tann, with orders 


252 Men who lutve made the 

to break if possible the projected orgaaization of a 
stroQg French army on the banks of the Loire, and to 
clear the country north of the river of all hostile 
forces. On the 6th of October Tann set oi^ on his 
mission. On the 8th he advanced to the heights 
of Etampes ; on the 9th, to Angerville, without 
meeting any more serious opposition than desultory- 
attempts to delay his advance made by bands of 
frane-tireurs. It was reported, however, that the 
French were concentrating a force of 40,000 mea 
at Orleans. 

On the 10th of October General von der Tana 
came upon the enemy at Artenay, where some 
20,000 French troops of all arms tried to make a 
stand. They were, however, speedily driven back 
in disorder upon Orleans, where they joined the 
newly-formed 15th corps of the French army. They 
left three guns and over 1,000 unwounded pri- 
stmers in the hands of the victors. 

On the 11th of October General von der Tann 
advanced upon Orleans, with the 22nd infantry 
division and the 2nd Bavarian division in the first 
line, the 1st Bavarian division in reserve, and the 
two cavalry divisions on both wings in observation. 
At 10.30 A.M. the German vanguard came first into 
coUiaion with the French, who fought most valiantly 
and obstinately, so that it was not before late in the 
evening, after a nine hours' arduous struggle, that they 
could be driven back across the Loire. Fortunately 

New German Empire. 253 

for the Genaana, the bridges over the river had been 
left intact, ao that they could cross over and cany 
the city by storm. In this battle again the French 
had heavy losses in killed and wounded, besides some 
2,500 unwounded prisoners taken by the victorious 
Germans. The total loss sudered by the latter in 
the two fights at Artenay and Orieans amounted to 
60 officers and more than 1,200 men killed and 

Ilie French retreated to Bourges. Gambetta, 
undismayed by losses and crosses, continued his 
efforts to organize a new French army. He ap- 
pointed to the chief command General Aurelle de 
Paladines, one of the best and most meritorious officers 
of the French service. Neither of these two truly 
great men have as yet been treated with common 
fairness by contemporary report. Impartial history 
will in the end do justice to both of them, and 
vindicate their well-earned fame to posterity. 

General von der Tann was instructed from head- 
quarters to content himself with the position gained, 
and not to carry operations beyond the Orleans line. 
In the latter days of October and the beginning of 
November it became clear that the new French army 
of the Loire had assumed formidable proportions. 
Aurelle de Paladines determined to take the offensive 
against the Germans in and about Orleans, and a 
general move in advance was made by the French 
on the 3rd and 4th of November. 

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It was now reported to General von der Tann by 
his scouts, that Aurelle de Paladines was advancing 
against him at the head of more than 60,000 men, 
to whom he could at the most oppose some 
28,000 effectives, as the 22nd infantry and a cavalry 
division had meanwhile been withdrawn &om his 
command. The general resolved at once to recon- 
noitre the true position of affairs, and ascertain the 
actual strength of the French opposed to him. 

Leaving a regiment of infantry in garrison at 
Orleans, he in the night of the 8th-9th of Novem- 
ber concentrated his forces at Coulmiers, awaiting 
the French attack. 

Coulmiers is a small place in the department of 
the Loii-et, circle of Orleans, from which city it is 
some fifteen English miles distant. Here Tann was 
attacked in the morning of the 9th of November by 
an overwhelming French force under Aurelle de 
Paladines. After a most obstinate fight — in which 
the 'French, according to their own account, suffered 
a heavy loss of some 2,000 men killed and wounded, 
whilst the Germans lost only 42 ofBcers and some 
700 men killed and wounded — General von der 
Tann broke off the fight, and retreated in perfect order 
to St. Pdravy, on the road from Orleans to Paris. 
At noon he had withdrawn the small garrison from 
Orleans. One thousand sick and wounded Germans 
had to be left behind. The next day a small detach- 
ment of artillery ammunition reserve lost its way, 

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New Gemum Empire. 255 

and fell into the handa of the French, wiih. two guns 
without carriages. These were the only trophies the 
French had to show of the hot fight of Ooulmiers. 

Tann effected his retreat with conannLmate skill. 
Indeed, this retreat to St. Pdravy and, the day after, 
when the 22nd infantry division under Wittich had 
again joined the Bavarians, to the safer position of 
Toary,.ha8 been acknowledged by friend and foe alike 
to deserve to rank with the highest strategic achieve- 
ments, and is of itself sufficient to mark General von 
der Tann as one of the greatest military leaders of 
the age. 

The cavalry division commanded by Prince Albrecht 
the elder (one of King Wilham'a brothers), coming up 
from Chartres, also joined the Bavarian corps on the 
10th of November, and the day after the Mecklenburg 
division came up under the Grand Duke Frederick 
Francis of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, a nephew of the 
Pruasian king, to whom the command over the 
combined force was given — over the head of Von der 
Tann, who, without a chance of contradiction, was 
immeasurably and incomparably the greater military 
leader of the two. Moltke had taken care, however, 
to limit his royal highness'a power of command to 
the mere empty title, the real leadership being vested 
in General von Stosch, the chief of the grand duke'a 
staff, one of the most highly accomplished officera of 
the Pruaaian service, who ia now holding the important 
poaition of First Lord of the Prussian Admiralty. 

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Men who have made I 

Under these circumstances Tann might put up with 
the alight appareutly put upon him by placing a mere 
grand duke in command over him ; and he nobly 
did his duty in the new campaign, which was 
victoriously opened at Dreux on the 1 7th of October, 
just eight days after the affair at Coulmiers. He and 
his Bavarians distinguished themselves more par- 
ticularly at Bazoches-les-Hautes on the 2nd of 
December, at Orleans on the 3rd and 4th of 
December, and at Beaugency on the 7th and 10th 
of December. 

At the end of December the 1st Bavarian corps 
under Von der Tann rejoined the besieging army 
around Paris, where it replaced the 2nd Prussian 
corps, sent forward to the east, to join Manteuffel's 
forces intended to act against Bourbaki. 

After the termination of the war, General von der 
Tann shared in the glory of the solemn entry of the 
German army into Berlin on the^ 16 th of June, 
1871. A month after, on the 16th of July, he 
commanded the Bavarian army on its triumphant 
entry into Munich. 

In the banning of October, 1872, General von 
der Tann was sent on an eztraordinary mission to 
Stockholm, to represent King Louis of Bavaria at the 
fimeral of King Charles XV. of Sweden, who had 
died on the l7th of September, 1872. 

General von der Tann, who has had a profusion of 
military orders and decorations bestowed upon him 

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New German Empire. 

by hia own king and other rulers, continues still in 
command of the lat corps of the Bavarian army. 
There ia good reason to believe that it had been the 
intention of the Emperor William to include the 
names of Von der Tann and Hartmaun in the list of 
general oflficera upon whom monetary grants were to 
be conferred, but that the emperor had to give up 
this intention reluctantly, in deference to certain 
objections urged against its execution by the King of 
Bavaria. At least, so the writer of this memoir has 
been informed. 

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Men who have made the 


Jakob (James) Haetmann was born on the 4th of 
May, 1795, at Maikammer, in the Palatinate. He 
was a posthumous chili His adoptive father, the 
French General Geither, provided for his education 
at the French military schools of Bonn and St. Cyr. 

In 1806, General Geither was charged by the 
Emperor Napoleon with the organization of the 
military forces of the newly-created Grand Duchy of 
Berg, which the ruler of France had just then be- 
stowed upon his brother-in-law, Joachim Murat The 
general at once entered the name of the boy, who 
was then only eleven years old, on the muster-roll 
of the 1st regiment of the Grand Duchy of Berg bb 
volunteer, promoting him afterwards, whilst still re- 
maining at the schools of Bonn and St Cyr, suc- 
cessively to the grades of corporal, sergeant, and 
sab-lieutenant, until ultimately, in 1811, the lad, then 
barely sixteen, joined the regiment in active service 
as first lieutenant — a striking illustratioD of the power 
,_ ibyGoogIc 

New Gennan Empire. 

of patronage and the pernicious influence of favourit- 
ism in the much-vaunted military system of imperial 
France and its dependencies. That the boy-lieutenant 
in the end turned out an excellent soldier and most 
eminent commander in the field, was certainly no 
merit of the system. 

From 1811 to 1815, young Hartmann did faithful 
service to the IVench empire. Upon the disarmament 
of the military contingent of the Rhine Confederation, 
he entered the 27th French infantry regiment. In 
1814, he distinguished himself by a most cleverly- 
devised, successful ambush, in which a detachment 
of Cossacks advancing from Montargis upon Orleans 
was caught. In 1815 he fought most bravely 
at Planchenoit, in the great battle of Waterloo, 
saving the eagle of his regiment from capture by 
the advancing Prussians, 

After the final overthrow of the empire, young 
Hartmann, who, despite his French education, was 
a most ardent lover of his native land, and had 
continued to serve the emperor only from an over- 
powering sense of military loyalty, resigned his 
commission in the French army in 1816. A few 
months after, he obtained a lieutenancy in the 10th 
Bavarian infantry regiment. His sterling soldierly 
qualities and brilliant military acquirements soon 
attracted the attentiwi of his chiefs, so that he was 
appointed in 1818 to a place in the Topographic 
Bureau. After f 

r four years' arduous work in this moBt^ , 

S2 '"'-'-"-'Sl'-' 

260 Men who have made the 

important department, he waa transferred to the corps 
of engineers ; and two years after, in 1824, he waa 
appointed on the general staff of the army. 

In 1827 he was promoted to the rank of captain, 
and attached to the Ministry of War as reporter to 
the board of administration. 

Having in the course of these first ten years of 
his service repeatedly been charged with military 
missions necessitating journeys to various parts of 
Europe, and having also turned hts occasional leaves 
of absence to excellent account, by travelling about 
in search of information upon subjects connected with 
or bearing upon the art and science of war. Captain 
Hartmann, though then only thirty-two years old, 
enjoyed already the deserved reputation of being one 
of the most solidly informed and most highly accom- 
plished German officers. 

He had by no means confined himself to the 
pursuit of military knowledge, but had aasiduooaly 
studied also many branches of science, and kindly 
taken, besides, to the faithful cultivation of the fine 
arts, more especially painting, in which he may 
truly be said to have been as skilful and successlul 
an adept as the great Vogel von Falckenstein himselC 
The writer of this memoir has seen some battle pieces 
painted by General Hartmatm, which convincingly 
showed that the artist was just as expert in illus- 
trating episodes of war as the warrior was in taking 
an active part in them. 

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New German Empire. 

Id 1842 Captain Hartmaun was promoted to tlie 
rank of major, and appointed one of the Crown 
Prince's adjutants by King Louis, by whom he was 
held in the highest esteem both as an eminent artist 
and a brilliant officer. His promotion had not been 
very rapid, it will be seen. He had been sixteen years 
a first-lieutenant and fifteen years a captain. But 
from this time forward he ascended the rungs of the 
military advancement ladder more rapidly, six years 
sufficing to transform the simple major into a fiill 
major-general and one of the chief aides-de-camp of 
the king. 

In 1846 he submitted to the Ministry of War an 
excellent plan for the re-organization of the Bavarian 
array, which was much lauded by the minister and 
the military cabinet, but was only very partially 
acted upon. 

In 1853 he elaborated a new code of service regu- 
lations for the infantry — with somewhat similar 
results, it woiUd appear. The time for thorough- 
going reforms in the Bavarian service had not yet 

The year after, in 1854, General Hartmann, who 
had now for five years commanded a brigade, was 
sent on a military mission to the Gamp de Boulogne. 
Here he turned his opportunities to the beat account. 
He carefully studied the organization and condition 
of the French army, and took note of its glaring 
defects and shortcomings. He also closely observed 


Men who have made the 

the system of fortificationB around Paris and all along 
the eastern frontier of France. 

The results of these studies and observations he 
submitted, some six years after, in 1860, to the rulers 
of the German states in a memoir treating exhaustively 
of the military power, and the offensive and defensive 
strength, of the French empire. There can be no 
doubt that both Bismarck and Moltke, each in 
his own special way, fully availed themselves subse- 
quently of the facts, hints, and inferences given in 
this excellent treatise. 

In 1861 Hartmann attained the high rank of 
lieutenant-generaL In the war of 1866 he com- 
manded the 4th infantry division, and fought 
brilliantly though not victoriously at Rossdorf. At 
Kissing'en he could do but Uttle, owing to the gross 
blundering and the glaringly faulty dispositions of 
the incapable commander-in-chief of the Bavarian 
army. In the final encounter at Wurzburg, on the 
27th of July, he did his best at least to guard the 
honour of the Bavarian arms. 

With Hartmann's known patriotic German feelings, 
he must have been heartily glad of the termination of 
this fratricidal war, into which Louis of Bavaria had 
allowed himself to be dragged by the wretched set 
of Ultramontaniat and Particularist advisers who were 
then exercising supreme sway over the land and the 
king. The overthrow of this anti-national cabal by 
the victories of Prussia must have proved 8 healing 

JVew German Empire. 

balm for his heart, 80 grievously struck and wounded 
by the sad display of incapacity and folly in the 
highest quarter of the army command. 

In 1867 King Louis bestowed upon Lieutenant- 
General Hartmann the proprietorship of the 14th 
infantry regiment, in acknowledgment of the great 
services rendered by the general, more especially of 
the brilliant bravery with which he had fought at 
Rossdorf and Wurzburg. 

Two years after, in 1869, the lieutenant-general 
was finally raised to the full rank of general of 
infantry, and appointed commander of the 2nd corps 
of the Bavarian army. 

When the war broke out in 1870 between France 
and Germany, both the corps of Hartmann and that 
of Von der Tann were incorporated in the army 
under the command of the Crown Prince of Prussia 
— the so-called third army. 

General Hartmann had now for the first time in 
his military career in the German army the fuUest op- 
portunity afforded him of giving practical proof of his 
high tactical skill in the field, in entire harmony with 
his ardent patriotic German feelings ; and nobly and 
grandly did he avail himself of this opportunity. It 
was he who contributed moat largely and prominently 
to the winning of the first great victory at Weissen- 
bui^ ; and again he who, by his skilful and energetic 
attack upon the left French flank, initiated the still 
greater victory of Worth, which he completed by 

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Men who have made ike 

the taking of Froschweiler, the railway station at 
Reichshofen, and ultimately of Niederbronn. 

On the 14th of August, 1870, he forced Marsal to 
surrender. In the battle of the Ist of September, one 
of the divdsions under his command took the village 
of Ballan, whilst the other was pushed forward to 
the very foot of the glacis of the fortress, the artillery 
of the corps assailing the citadel with a shower of 

To General Hartmann'a share it fell to gain the 
first successes before Paris, on the 16th, l7th, and 
18th of September, at CorbeO and Petit- BicStre. 
On the 19th of September, the 2nd Bavarian corps 
joined the 5th Prussian corps in a most successful 
attack upon General Vinoy's forces, posted on the 
heights of Sceau. General Hartmann carried the plateau 
Moulin de la Tour (Chatillon), which highly important 
position, commanding the south forts, and, in a certain 
measure, the city of Paris, the general set at once 
to work to provide with the most effective defences 
against all possible attacks on the part of the French. 
These defences were completed in the briefest time, 
and the 2nd Bavarian corps was thus placed in a 
position to victoriously repulse all attacks made upon 
the plateau from the forts, although throughout the 
siege ship guns of the very heaviest calibre kept on 
deluging the parts held by the Germans under Hart- 
mann in their entire length and breadth with a perfect 
shower of the most destructive projectiles, and several 


New German Empire. 

desperate attempts were made by the French to foree 
the Germans from their post by the crushing weight 
of overwhelming numbers. The formidable attack 
made upon Clamart, in the night of 14th-15th 
January, 1871, waa one of the last of these attempts. 
It failed like the rest 

After the termination of the war, General Hart- 
mann returned to his headquarters at Wurzburg. 
King Louis bestowed upon him, as a signal mark of 
his high appreciation of the most important services 
rendered by the general in the campaign, the rare 
distinction of the Grand Cross of the military Maxi- 
milian Joseph order, which had not been con- 
ferred on anyone since the days of the "War of 
Liberation. He also raised him to a free hereditary 
barony. The cities of Speyer and Wurzburg were 
proud to enrol him among their citizena The 
Emperor of the Germaos and Kin g of Prussia gave 
him the orders of the Iron Cross of the first class 
and the second class, and of the Crown with Swords. 
So when the old general departed this life, on the 
22nd of February, 1873, it might' well be said of 
him that he died full of years and honours. 

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Men who have made the 


As this general, by hia prompt decision, energetic 
action, and high tactical skill, contributed so largely 
to the succt'^.=ful issue of the fierce battle of Mars- 
la-Tour, a brief memoir of his career may not be 
deemed out of place here. 

Constantine von Alvensleben is descended from an 
ancient noble family. He was born on the 26th of 
August, 1809. Like many other scions of the Prussian 
nobility, he received his education at the great Insti- 
tute of the Cadet Corps at Berlin. At the age of 
eighteen he obtained his commission as second heu- 
tenant. His promotion was rather slow, for he was 
piist forty-four before he attained the rank of major. 

At the time of the Danish war in 1864, he had 
reached the grade of colonel. In this war he dis- 
tinguished himself by his personal bravery and the 
consummate skill with which he handled his regiment 
in the various encounters with the Danes. After the 
war he was made a major-general, and had the com- 

New Oerman Empire. 

maad of a brigade of the guards given to him, at 
the head of which he gained great distinction in 
the Bohemian campaign of 1866, more particularly at 
the battle of Koniggratz, where, after the fall of 
General Hiller von Gartricgen, he took the command 
of the lat division of the guards, left, unhappily, 
vacant by the death of that heroic leader on the 

King William showed hia due appreciation of the 
eminent services rendered by Alvensleben, by raising 
him to the rank of lieutenant-general, and bestowing 
upon him the actual command of the Ist division 
of the guards, which he had temporarily led at 
Koniggratz. In 1870, when the war with France 
broke out, and Prince Frederick Charles had intrusted 
to him the lead of the so-called second army, Lieu- 
tenant-General von Alvensleben was promoted to 
replace the prince in the command of the 3rd corps 
of the Prussian army. 

It was in one of the fiercest and bloodiest battles 
of the Franco-German war, at Mars-la-Tour, on the 
16th of August, 1870, that General Alvensleben had 
a glorious opportunity afforded him of showing his 
high military qualities on a field which coidd not 
possibly be more favourable for the display, and 
most gloriously did he avail himself of this op- 

With his single corps (the Srd) unsupported till 
the battle was far advanced, he fought for hours 


Men who have made the 

against overwhelming French forces (the corps of 
Decaen, Ladmirault, Frossard, Canrobert, and the 
French imperial guard), holding his tenacious grasp 
upon them until at length Prince Frederick Charles 
could bring up part of the 8th, 9th, and 10th corps, 
and, though still greatly inferior in numbers to the 
French host, after twelve hours' incessant fighting 
force the enemy back into Metz. 

There was a most critical moment in this battle of 
Mars-la-Tour, when Canrobert was on the point of 
breaking through the feeble Prussian force which 
was 60 desperately striving to hold him fixed to 
the ground. He was just preparing to throw forward 
the two corps which formed the centre of his army 
at Vionville. Had he succeeded in accomplishing 
this move, the French army of the Rhine might have 
made good its escape from the meshes of the net 
so skilfully thrown round it by Moltke's genius. 

But General Alvensleben was equal to the occasion. 
With marvellously prompt decision he resolved to 
risk the total loss of two regiments of cavalry, by 
hurling them against the French centre at Vionville 
before Canrobert should be able to execute his pro- 
jected movement in advance. 

Six squadrons of Prussian cavalry, three of the 
i6th Lancers, and three of the 7th Cuirassiers, were 
selected by the general for the purpose. The lead 
of the attacking force was intrusted to Count Schmet- 
tau, colonel of the 7ih Cuirassiers, who threw his 


New German Empire. 

small force with a desperate dash upon the French 
centre at Vionville, completely confusing Canrobert, 
and effectually staying the intended advance until 
the favourable moment for it had paaaed away. The 
gallant Prussian cavalry got safely hack afterwards 
out of the seemingly inevitable jaws of death, albeit 
with heavy loss of killed and wounded. 

This magnificent tactical stroke fully deserves to 
rank with those brilliant inspirations of genius by 
which Claudius Nero snatched the assured victory 
from great Hasdrubal m the decisive battle of the 
Metaurus, and Kellermau turned the Austrian victory 
at Marengo into a disastrous defeat 

At Gravelotte the 3rd corps, under Alvenaleben, 
formed the reserve along with the 10th corps ; the 
artillery of the 3rd corps, and part of its infantry, 
took an active share in the actual fight 

The 3rd corps joined subeequeutly in the siege of 
Metz, where it participated in the repulse of 
Bazaine's last attempt, of the 7th of October, 1870, 
to break out of the iron circle thrown round his 
anny by the Germans. Later on the corps took an 
efiective part in the fights at Beaune-la-Rolande, 
Ohevilly and Chilliers-aux-Bois, Orleans, Venddme, 
kc, and finally in tixe crowning victory of Lrc 

If the past may be looked upon as a pledge for 
the future, there is certainly every reason to con- 
jecture that General von Alvensleben, who is only 


Men who have rruide the 

in his sixty-sixth year, may have a still more brilliant 
career before him. 

Here our list of commanders in the field must 
end, although many other generals who have also 
largely contributed to make the new German em- 
pire might fairly claim a place, — Prince Augustus 
of Wurtemberg, for instance, the excellent com- 
mander of the Prussian guards. Generals Alvens- 
leben I., Blnmenthal, Barnekow, Beyer, Bose, 
Craushaar (who fell at St Privat, on the 18th of 
August, 1 8 70), Degenfeld, Francois (who fell at 
Spicheren, on the 6th of August, 1870), Fransecky, 
GlUmer, Goltz, Keller, Kirchbach, Kummer, Man- 
etein, Mutiua (who died of cholera in 1866), Ober^ 
nitz, Eheinliaben, Schlotheim, Schmeling, Sperling, 
Stiehle, Stosch, Treskow, Tumpling, Voigta-Rhetz, 
Waldersee, Wartensleben, AVedell, William of Baden, 
Wittich, Zastrow, and a host of other leaders, the 
briefest sketches of whose achievements woidd fill many 
volumes, but whom we are compelled to pass over, as 
we have barely left space sufficient for brief memoirs 
of General Hindersin, the late chief of the Pruaaian 
Board of Ordnance ; Heydt and Caraphausen, the 
two great financiers who found the nervus rerum 
in 1866 and 1870; President Delbrtick and Coun- 
cillor Lothar Bucher, and, lastly, Dreyse and Krupp, 
of needle-gun and steel cannon fame ; and Griinbei^, 
the intelligent cook who concocted the pea sausage. 

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New Gei'man Empire. 


In the memoir of Field-Marshal Roon it has been 
explaiaed at greater length how the new military 
organization initiated and perfected by Schamhorst 
and Gneisenau, which had so successfully stood the 
test of the great Liberation War, had in the course of 
time grown antiquated and rusty, and must of neces- 
sity have proved a disastrous failure if tried when 
no longer kept up by the burning patriotism and the 
deep hatred of the foreign oppressor that had per- 
vaded the great citizen host throughout the campaigns 
of 1813-15 ; and how the brilliant genius of Roon had 
succeeded in converting this somewhat clumsy and 
inefficient weapon into the exquisitely tempered arm 
with which Bismarck and King William had wrested 
supremacy in Germany from the strong and tenacious 
grasp of Austria in 1866, and, some few years later, 
supremacy in Europe from the proud hold of France. 
But even with his brilliant genius and his immense 
power of organization, Roon might have found 

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Men who have made the 

success impraeticable in the gigantic task undertaken 
by him, had he oot been most ably seconded by 
many other men of bis own high stamp of intellect. 
Among his most efficient helpers we may cursorily 
mention here the late Prince Adalbert of Prussia, the 
chief creator of the infant navy of Germany, which 
whenever the time for a first trial of its strength shall 
come, is sure to prove itaelf an infant Hercules; the 
late Prince Albrecht of Prussia, brother of the emperor, 
who has contributed most largely to ensure the marvel- 
lous efficiency of the Prussian cavalry in the field ; 
Generals Etzel, Holleben, Kameke, OUech, Peucka:, 
Podbielski, Wartenberg, and, more particularly, the 
subject of this memoir, Hindersin, to whose high 
capacity and patient perseverance the Prussian 
w^lery owes its actual vast Ruperiority over any 
other gunnery force on the continent of Europe. 

Gustavus Edward Hindersin was the son of a 
Lutheran clergyman, who held a small curacy at 
Wernigerode, in the Harz district. Born on the 18th 
of July, 1804, he was carefully educated by his father, 
and embraced the military career at the early age of 
sixteen, from natural predilection for the profession 
of arms. 

In October, 1820, he entered the 3rd artUlery 
brigade, then in garrison at Erfurt. The young 
aspirant had to wait five years before he obtained 
his first commission ba second lieutenant However, 
his evident high capacity, sober and studious chaiw^er, 
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Nev3 German Empire. 273 

and solid acquirementB soon attracted the attention 
of his chiefs, and he was sent to the general War 
School at Berlin, to complete his scientific military 

After this he waa ordered to join the topographic 
section of the general staff of the army. 

Id 1841 he obtained his promotion to a first lieu- 
tenancy, and was appouited on the general staff. The 
year after, in 1842, he waa made a captain, and four 
years later, in 1846, he was promoted to the rank • 
of major, and made chief of the topographic section. 
In this position he remained till the summer of 
1849, when he waa ordered to join General Peucker's 
combined German corps in the campaign against the 
Baden insui^nts, first as assistant-chief, soon after as 
principal chief of the staff. He was present at the 
encounters at Lautershausen and Ladenburg. During 
the latter fight he had occasion to ascend the city 
tower, to be better able to reconnoitre the forces of 
the enemy. At this juncture the insurgents obtained 
a temporary success, and Major Hindersin was cut 
off before he could effect his retreat from his high 
observatory. He was carried a prisoner to Rastatt, 
but released soon after by his captors when the in- 
surrection had collapsed. 

Aft«r the termination of the campaign. Major 
Hinderain was appointed on the staff of the 6th 
corps at Breslau. In 1850 he was entered as major 
on the muster-roll of the 6th artillery regiment, and 

VOL. n. T,_,,ibyGoOQk' 

Men who have made the 

four years after, in 1854, be was made lieuteoaDt- 
colonel and commander of the 2nd artillery regiment. 
The same year he was promoted to the rank of full 
colonel, and four years later, in 1853, he was made 
major-general and inspector of the 3rd artillery 

On the ISth of October, 1S61, Hindersin was named 
lieutenant-general by King William, and appointed 
inspector of the 2nd artillery inspection at Berlin ; 
also president of the board of examiners for first- 
lieutenancy commissions in the artillery. 

In the Danish war of 1864, General HindersLn 
organized the engineer and artillery attacks upon the 
works of DUppel, and the successful issue of the 
operations, and of the final assault, delivered on the 
ISth of April, was due in a great measure to his 
skill and energy. 

King William, wishing to bestow upon the general 
a signal mark of his high appreciation of his long 
and eminent services, raised him to the Prussian 
peerage, and appointed him in December, 1864, first 
and sole inspector-general of artillery, and curator of 
the high school for artillerists and engineers. 

General Hindersin entered now upon the most suc- 
cessful and productive period of his career. It is 
not too much to say that he revolutionized the entire 
PrussiaD gunnery system — nay, that he created anew 
the Prussian artillery such as it is at the present day. 
He organized the systematic artillery practice at 


New German Empire. 

Berlin. He directed and superintended with the 
most anxious care the substitution of the most effi- 
cient rifled cannons for the much less perfect ordnance 
of the past. He introduced the Kriegsspiel, or war 
game, among the obligatory branches of the edu- 
cation of artillery officers, himself inventing a new- 
variation of the game as applied more especially to 
sieges. He organized extensive exercises in siege 
operations, and in the defence of fortresses. He in- 
sisted most strongly upon the tactical improvement 
of the officers under his inspection, and never ceased 
calling their most serious attention to the high im- 
portance of a proper comprehension and appreciation 
of gunnery practice. He laid it down as an axiom 
in artillery firing, that no shot should be thrown 
away or fired at random. 

When the war of 1866 broke out, the great reforms 
carried out since then by General Hindersin were 
still in the period of initiation ; besides, except per- 
haps at Koniggriltz, the Prussian artillery had not a 
feir opportunity afforded it in the Bohemian cam- 
paign to show what it might be able to do in case 
of need . General Hindersin, however, attended the 
king at the royal head-quarters from the beginning 
of July to the end of the campaign. He was then 
promoted to the rank of general of infantry. 

In 1868 he was appointed a member of the land 
defence conunission. In September, 1869, King 
William bestowed another signal mark of his high 

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Men who have made the 

appreciation of Hindersin'a eminent services upon the 
general, by conferring upon him the chiefahip of the 
Pomeranian regiment of field artillery No. 2. 

In the war of 1870-71, General Hindersin attended 
the king at royal head-quarters from first to last as 
general-in-chief of the German artillery. He was 
present at the battles of Gravelotte and Sedan, and 
during the siege and bombardment of Paris, and 
shared personally in the fights of la belle St. Cloud, 
and beneath Mont Vul^rien. 

On the 18th of July, 1871, General Hindersin 
celebrated the jubilee of the fiftieth anniversary of 
his entering the Prussian military service, having been 
unable to do so on the proper day, the J 8th of 
October, 1870, on account of the war then waging. 
It was a most glorious festival for the old man — his 
majesty the emperor and king, the Crown Prince, and 
the other princes of the imperial and royal house, the 
German kings and princes, and the general's brothers- 
in-arms eagerly vieing with each other to pour their 
sincerest congratulations and best gifts and wishes 
upon him. Six months and eight days after, on 
the 25th of January, 1872, he departed this life, 
universally regretted, more especially by hia " chil- 
dren," as he used to afiectionately call the oflBcers, non- 
commissioned officers, and men of the artillery force, 
which owes its actual high efficiency chiefly to his 
solicitous care. 

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New German Empire. 


The great Raymond Montecuculi, one of the most 
distinguiBhed Anstriau commanders of the seveDteent^ 
century, the worthy rival and competitor of Turenne 
and Cond^, in his famous work on the art and science 
of war (published first in the original Italian by Ugo 
Foscolo, in 1807, at Milan, and subsequently once 
more by Giassi, in 1821, at Turin), lays it down as a 
leading axiom, that he who would indulge in the en- 
ticing but perilous pursuit of armed strife should, first 
and foremost, make ample provision of three things 
— money, to wit, in the first place; mosey, again, 
in the second place ; and MONEY, finally, in the 
third place. Long ere the brilliant Modenese had 
penned this sage maxim, its truth had been prac- 
tically illustrated many and many times by the 
experience of all preceding ages. 

Now, as the chief part of Bismarck's perilous 
venture for the Imperial German Unity Stakes had 

II.;, Google 

278 Men who Itave made the 

to be played on the battle-field, the two eminent 
men to whom the guidance of the financial depart- 
ment of the Btate was intrusted in these critical times 
may well and deservedly claim a niche in tiiis Wal- 
halla of Gennao worthies. 



" Der'B Tacaam mazime defleadam, die horrible Leere, 
Den tlulerloaen Abgruud, Ton BodelschTringli ibm hinteilassen. 
So Tunderbarlich ausgefuUt; zu seines K&mene ew'ger Ehre 
Hejdtmasaig viel des Gelda geschaSt in die geleerten Kaaaen." 

(Which may be briefly paiapbnsed, in Temacular prose on- 
adorned: — ^ vho so wondrousl; filled np the deplorable 
vacuuni, the horrible hollow, the dollarless abyss, left him 
by Bodelschwingh ; and, to his name's undying honoor, made 
a rich Pactolean stream flov into the empty treasniy.) 

AuGUSTDs TDK DEE Heydt Was bom on the 15th 
of February, 1801, at Elberfeld, where his father 
was chief of one of the leading banking establish- 
menta of Rhineland- Westphalia. Brought up almost 
from infancy to mercantile pursuits, he from an 
early age displayed signs of the mai-vellous aptitude 
for business that distinguished him through life. 
After finishing his commercial education in Germany, 
he worked a few years as clerk and correspondait 


New German Empire. 

in several leading houses of commerce and finance ia 
France and in England. 

Having passed through this excellent practical 
school, he, in conjunction with his brothers Charles 
and "William, entered upon the management of the 
parental bankiug house in Elberfeld. 

He was still a very young man at the time, but 
his manifest sound practical sense, and his eminent 
capacity for active work, soon drew upon him the 
attention of his fellow-citizens, who elected him a 
member of the municipal couDcil of Elberfeld, at 
an age when most young men of wealth and sta- 
tion would barely think of extending the display 
of their gifts beyond the social circle and the ball- 
room. He at once became one of the most active 
and painstaking members of the corporation, and 
strove from the very commencement of his municipal 
career to fulfil his civic duties to the best of his trans- 
cendent ability. Heydt was truly a great citizen in 
the fullest sense of the tenn. 

He took a leading share in every measure of public 
improvement. The admirable ^stem of administer- 
ing to the wants of the indigent, which makes the 
Elberfeld poor-law regulations the marvel and model 
of all communities with philanthropic aspirations, 
owes its origin and elaboration chiefly to him. 

He had only just attaioed the legal age for the 
o£Bce when he was elected one of the judges of the 
Tribunal of Commerce of Elberfeld, and soon after, 

, I by Google 

280 Men who have made the 

he was raised to the presidential chair of the Coiirt, 
which he occupied uninterruptedly for many a long 
year, it may fairly be said, with the universal appro- 
bation of all who had occasion to have recourse to 
that high tribunal. 

In 1841 he was elected to represent his native 
cil^ at the Rhenan Provincial Diet; and in 1842 
he attended the sittings of the United Committees 
of the collective Prussian Estates at Berlin. He was 
sent also to the United Provincial Diet of 1847. 
Here he was one of the most active members. He 
warmly advocated the conversion of the old cum- 
brous Provincial Estates into a real constitutional 
representation of the whole land 

When 1848 came, with its violent commotions and 
perturbations, Heydt, with his exceUent sense, foresaw 
at once the lame and impotent conclusion to which 
the ill-coDsidered, extravagant, revolutionary projects 
and aspirations of that tempestuous period were 
inevitably tending. So he resolved to have naught 
to do with the political movement of the time, and 
accordingly declined to accept the mandate of deputy 
tendered to him, to represent Elberfeld at the Nation^ 
Assemblies of Frankfort-on-the-Main and Berlin. He 
also declined the seat proffered him in tiie Prassian 
Cabinet by the Pfuel-Eichmann administration. He 
knew that the time had not yet come for useful 
collaboration in the regeneration of Prussia. 

It Wii9 only after the translocation of the van- 


New Gei'man Empire. 

quiehed assembly from Berlin to Brandenburg that 
he could be prevailed upon to accept the proffered 
mandate. On the 4th day of December, 1848, the 
day of the dissolution of the Prussian National 
Assembly, he accepted the oflSce of President of the 
Board of Trade and Public Works in the Branden- 
burg-Manteuffel cabinet 

In this capacity he brought his rare energy and 
great talents to bear upon the arduous task before him, 
and rendered the most eminent services to the govern- 
ment and the country. In 1851 he accepted also 
the chairmanship of the Bank of Prussia, to the 
manifest advantage of that great institution. 

Upon the retirement of the Manteuffel cabinet, 
on the 6th of November, 1858, Heydt retained his 
old office in the new Hohenzollem ministry, and 
subsequently in the Auerswald-Schwerin adminis- 
tration, until the 18th of March, 1862, when the 
Liberal cabinet resigned, in consequence of Hagen's 
motion to have a specified budget submitted to the 
House being carried. 

Hohenlohe-Itzenplitz, who succeeded, offered Heydt 
the Chancellorship of the Exchequer, which he 
accepted. This was, unhappily, the time when the 
conflict between parliament and crown anent Boon's 
military reorganization plan was raging most fiercely. 

Heydt, who, though with preponderating Con- 
servative leanings, had still a considerable admix- 
ture of constitutional Liberalism in the composition 

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Men who have made tke 

of his political character, strove hard to steer a 
middle course between the two opposing ciurenta 
He wrote a letter to Roon, then Minister of War, 
in which he endeavoured to persuade his colleague 
to drop the proposed additions to the taxes, and 
consent to economise in the budget of the Ministry 
of War instead. This letter somehow found 
its way into publicity, most likely through Heydt's 
own instrumentality. But it failed in its evident 
purpose to conciliate the Liberal majority of the 

Heydt's offer to submit a specified budget to the 
House, in cocformity with Hagen's motion, proved 
equally unsuccessful, and the attempted conversion 
of the 4^ per cent, loans of 1850 and 1851 into 
4 per cent, consols gave also a negative result 
To fill up the measure of Heydt's failures and 
disappointments at this critical juncture, the king 
turned a deaf ear to the counsels of concession and 
conciliation tendered him by his Chancellor of the 

Thus foUed at all points, the unlucky Minister 
of Finance took the pretext of Bismarck's appoint- 
ment to the Premiership, on the 23rd of September, 
1862, to tender his resignation to the king, which 
his majesty was pleased to accept, graciously bestow- 
ing upon the retiring minister an hereditary peer^e 
as a mark of his royal favour. 

Baron von der Heydt took his seat on the Con- 
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New Oerman Umpire. 283 

servative benches, and voted with the government on 
most questions. 

At the end of May, 1866, when war withAustria and 
her German abettors had clearly become inevitable, 
and Bodelschwingh, Heydt's successor, who had held 
the Chancellorship of the Exchequer since the 1st 
of October, 1862, had the cool assurance to drily 
inform bis majesty the king that there was not 
a thaler in the treasury to defray the expenses of 
the intended war, Bismarck, who has always shown 
a singular aptitude in choosing the fittest instruments 
for his work, advised the king to send for Baron 
von der Heydt, who was thus once more made 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, on the 2nd of June, 

He had a most difficult task before him. Money 
must be had for the impending war, yet a loan was 
clearly out of the question, considering the hostile 
feelings of the majority of the Prussian Commons. 
Von der Heydt was equal to the task. By the 
judicious sale and transfer of certain railways belong- 
ing to the state, he obtained funds sufficient to de&ay 
the heavy expenses of the war ; and, by a wise ad- 
ministration of the resources of the country, he 
succeeded in rescuing the Prussian exchequer from 
the slough of despond into which the incapable 
feudalist and Austrophile Bodelschwingh had plunged 
it de gaieti de cceur. 

Indeed, so thoroughly did the new Chancellor of the 


284 Men who have made the 

Exchequer succeed, that he could appear on the 5th 
of August, 1866, hefore the Chambers with a highly- 
satisfactory budget for 1867, which showed the 
finances of the country to be in a most brilliant and 
truly healthy condition, unexampled in the history of 
the Prussian exchequer, not only providing amply for 
all current wants, but even enabling the minister to 
gratify many legitimate wishes which, up to this, had 
had to be ignored of necessity for lack of means. 

It was at this time also that Von der Heydt 
rendered a moat signal service to the cause of con- 
stitutional liberty in Prussia, by standing manfully, 
by Bismarck in the hard fight waged by the great 
man with the reactionary majority in the cabinet and 
the stiff-necked old king to force their reluctant con- 
sent to acknowledge that the king's government had, 
since 1862, violated the constitution, albeit in the true 
interests of the country, and that the only proper and 
constitutional way to purge this infraction of the 
great fundamental law of the land was to ask the 
representatives of the people to grant a bill of 
indemnity for the past 

The bill of indemnity, drawn up by Von der 
Heydt, was granted by the Commons, and thus a 
happy end was put at last to the lamentable conflict 
which had for years divided the government and the 
country into two hostile camps. 

The House, thus judiciously put into the very best 
and most yielding humour, granted the Chancellor of 


New German Empire. 

the Exchequer all he wanted to carry on his majesty's 
government — to wit, a vote of 9,OO0,0O0Z. for the 
extraordinary army and navy budget, and the 
creation of the state treasure upon a new legal basis. 

From 1866 to 1869, Von der Heydt remained at 
the head of the Prussian exchequer, the king re- 
peatedly declining to accept the resignation tendered 
by the baroD on account of his failing health. 

But it was not alone that the Prussian Finance 
Minister's health was giving way — the condition of 
the country also had been changing for the worse. 
Trade and commerce were beginning to show alarming 
signs of stagnation ; several bad harvests in succession 
had interfered sadly with the prosperity of the land. 
The incorporation of the new provinces was necessarily 
attended with financial embarrassments and difficul- 
ties, which seemed to require a more vigorous hand to 
effectively deal with them than that of an old man 
close upon seventy, and in indifferent health. 

So it came to pass that the budget for 1 870 
showed a deficit of some £800,000 upon the finan- 
cial year, which the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
proposed to cover by additions to the direct taxes; 
and this the Prussian Commons were not disposed 
to grant. 

Von der Heydt, feeling his absolute inability to 
grapple with the difficulties of his position, tendered 
his resignation once more to the king, who was at 
last graciously pleased to accept it, bestowing upon. 

Men who ha/oe made the 

the retiring statesman the rare distinction of the 
Order of the Black Eagle as a most signal mark of 
the royal appreciation of his eminent services. 

Baron Von der Heydt died last June in Berlin, 
leaving an immense fortune to his family, and 
several large bequests for charitable and philanthropic 

It may not be altogether out of place here to men- 
tion that Von der Heydt was for many years a leading 
member of the board of directors of the pidiicipal 
Rhenan railways, which may be truly said to owe 
their actual prosperity, in a very great measure at 
least, to his wise, skilful, and enei^tic management 
of their affairs. 


" Wie er, Tentaod's wohl je mq Finanzier bo gat, 
Den Manco umzuwandeln in den Ueberfloss; 
Dei Kasse seichte Ebbe in die hoha Fluth, 
Das BcMimme Deficit in achonen XTebeTBchosa 1 " 

(Did ever financier know ao well as he how to convert lack into 
abundance, the exchequer's dij ebb into a rich high tide of 
cafh, the aad deficit into a handsome surplus )) 

In 1866 Von der Heydt had boldly taken the 
helm of the tempest-tossed financial state bark, and 
steered it brilliantly through the storms and rocks 
and shoals and quicksands of these most critical 

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New German Empire. 287 

times to the secure harbour of success. But ad- 
Tancing age and infirmitiea had Hince then somewhat 
dimmed the cleiu: sight of the experienced old 
helmsman, and his hand retained no longer the 
same firm grasp upon the tiller as of old. 

But as has always been Prussia's good fortune, 
uno avulso, iion deficit alter. At the perilous junc- 
ture, in the faU of the year 1869, another still 
greater financier was ready to take the helm of the 
exchequer from Heydt'a relaxing grasp. 

Otto von Camphausen was bom on the 21st of 
October, 1812, at Hiinshoven, in the district of Aix- 
la Chapelle. As his family ranked among the 
wealthiest people in Rhinelanu, he could follow the 
bent of his own inclination in the choice of his 
future career in life. Two elder brothers of his 
having taken to mercantile and financial pursuits, 
and founded in 1825 a great banking business at 
Cologne, under the style of A, and L. Camp- 
hausen, young Otto elected to devote himself to the 
study of law and of political economy in all its 
branches, extending his course of reading also to 
history, philosophy, and art. 

Although the great wealth of his family might 
have exempted him from all thought of ever having 
to turn his university pursuit to practical account 
for getting a living, he worked at his studies even 
harder than many of the poorest students. The result 
was that he passed a most brilliant examination. 

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Men who have made the 

He imide it speedily manifest also that he purposed 
to devote the exercise of his talents to the service 
of his country. Soon after passing his examina- 
tion, in the autumn of 1834, he took his station 
on the lowest rung of the bureaucratic ladder in 
the general government department of the state 
at Cologne, where he remained about three years. 

His brother Ludolf, his senior by nearly ten 
years, one of the chief partners in the great bank- 
ing house of A. and L. Camphausen at Cologne, 
induced Otto to turn his special attention to the 
serious consideration of questions connected with 
trade, commerce, and industry. 

In 1837 young Otto Camphausen was transferred 
to Magdeburg, where he remained nearly three years 
in the capacity of assessor. He then entered the 
Ministry of Finance for a short time, as assistant in 
the treasury department. In December, 1840, he was 
sent to the government board at Coblenz, whence 
he was in February, 1842, transferred to Treves. 
In 1844, he was raised to the rank of councillor, and 
attached to the Ministry of Finance at Berlin. The 
year after, in 1845, at the early age of thirty-three, he 
was made Privy Councillor of Finance. 

As he showed himself gifted with remarkably quick 
comprehension of the most difficult and knotty 
questions in the domain of political economy, and 
with equally remarkable power of lucid exposition, 
the draft of the important law respecting the in- 

New German Empire. 289 

troduction of an income tax into the Prussian mon- 
archy was confided to his care. Both the project of 
law submitted by him to the first united Prussian 
Diet of 1847, and the explanatory and elucidatory 
memoir accompanying the draft, were perfect models 
of cleaxnesa. 

In 1848 his elder brother, Ludolf Camphausen, 
stepped suddenly, per saltum, &om his banker's desk 
at Cologne to the presidential chair of the Ministry 
of State at Berlin, being called by King Frederick 
William IV. to succeed Count Amim-Boitzenburg as 
prime minister, on the 29th of March. Ludolf 
availed himself largely of hia younger brother's 
splendid business talents, and the two might, indeed, 
have succeeded at the time in tiding over this 
most critical epoch in the constitutional history of 
the land, had they not bad to encounter the deep 
insincerity of the monarch on the one side, and the 
(very excusable) profound distrust of the Radical 
and Progressist majority of the Assembly on the 
other side. 

Both Ludolf and Otto CMnphausen were moderate 
Liberals — too honestly Liberal to suit the views of the 
king and of the reactionary feudalist clique around him, 
and too honestly Conservative for the impatience of 
the men of progress. Less than three short months 
sufficed to convince Ludolf Camphausen of this fact, 
and already on the 20th of June he tendered bis 
resignation to the king. 

VOL. II. 5r.,..:ib;,Googk' 

Men who have made the 

One month after, at the end of July, 1 848, Ludolf 
Camphausen was sent as Prussian representative to 
the new German central power at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main. Here he remained till April, 1849, when 
he finally reeigned, and went back to his banking 
business at Cologne, a wiser and a sadder man, 
thoroughly disenchanted of the aUunng illusions of 
power and office. 

Otto Camphausen was a member of the Second 
Prussian Chamber from 1849 to 1852. He was also 
elected to the Erfurt Parliament in 1-850. He dis- 
tinguished himself greatly as reporter on financial 
and politico-economical questions, A moderate Liberal 
in politics, he kept also in his views and opinions on 
trade and commerce the right middle between the 
two extremes of prohibitive protection and absolute 
and unrestricted firee trade. 

In 1854 Otto Camphausen exchanged the active 
state service for the quasi-independent, highly im- 
portant, and influential position of president of the 
SeehandluDg, or institute of maritime commerce, in 
which he succeeded Baron Kother, late minister of 

A bachelor, and possessor of a very laige private 
fortune, not to mention the rich emoluments of his 
high office, President Camphausen could now freely 
indulge in the gratification of his social and artistic 
tastes, and also in the exercise of a wise and 
truly benevolent philanthropy, devoting laige sunis 


New Gei-man Empire. 

annuaUy to the encouragement of literature and art, 
and to the support of charitable institutions. 

But in the fall of 1869 he had to quit this happy, 
easy life at the call of duty. The Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, Baron von der Heydt, had failed to 
grapple successfully with the financial embarrass- 
ments of the state treasury, and had thereupon ten- 
dered his resignation. Bismarck asked Camphausen 
to take the vacant seat in the Prussian cabinet 

A few days after bis installation in office, the new 
Chancellor of the Exchequer appeared before the 
Second Chamber with the welcome announcement 
that he withdrew his predecessor's proposal of an 
increase of the direct taxes, deeming it the more 
expedient course to cover the deficit of £800,000 
out of the fund annually devoted to the reduction 
of the national debt 

He made a provisional declaration on this occaBion, 
that, in his opinion, a wise financial policy should 
strive to give the government of the state a wider 
latitude of action in its measures and operations 
for the reduction of the national debt. He could 
not see the wisdom of paying off annually some 
£1,200,000 to £1,500,000, at the very time when 
the necessities of the state might actually require the 
raising of new loans, most likely upon more onerous 
terms than those of the existing old debt. The 
state should, on the contrary, have the free choice 
of devoting in good years larger, in bad years smaller 

"2 , ^..Googk- 

292 Men who have made the 

soma, even down to nothing, to the reduction of the 
debt. The rights and privileges of the state creditors 
need not be infringed upon in this proceeding. 

A few days after, at the sitting of the 4th of Novem- 
ber, 1869, the minister further illustrated his views 
upon this highly import;ant question. He explained 
how the creditors of the state might, by the oflFer 
of a premium, be easily prevailed upon to consent 
to the conversion of the whole of the old 4^ per cent, 
and 4 per cent, state debt of the old provinces of 
Prussia into a consolidated funded debt paying 
the holders 4^ per cent, interest per annum. This 
would leave Uie state at full hberty to devote 
any available funds to the purchase of consols, 
thereby reducing the national debt in the simplest 
manner, whilst it would free the government from 
the onerous obligation of paying back a stipulated 
fixed sum every year. In this srase Camphausen 
drew up a series of resolutions, which the Parliament 
subsequently adopted. So soon as he had thus 
freedom of action given him, he set vigorously and 
skilfully to work, and speedily efiected the proposed 
conversion and funding of the debt with brilliant 

Camphausen's administration of the finances of 
the country was equally successful in all other 
respects. In the most important question of the 
revenue, the Prussian Chancellor of the Exchequer 
advocates the healthy development of the system 

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New German Empire. 293 

of indirect taxation, and he is the most uncom- 
promising opponent of all attacks levelled against 
the fundamental principles of that system. 

He is also an advocate of a moderate increase of 
the tax upon coffee and similar articles of con- 
sumption which cannot properly be regarded in 
the light of indispensable necessaries of life. On 
the other hand he would free all raw materials, &c., 
required for the purposes of industry as much as 
possible from the trammels of taxation. 

Camphausen's management of the Prussian ex- 
chequer has been most brilliantly successful ever 
since he came into office. In 1870, more especially, 
he repeated, more grandly still, Heydt's great 
achievement of 1866, by his financial skill and 
wise statesmanship enabling the treasury to bear 
without embarrassment the immense burden of the 
war. Since then he has made his appearance before 
the Prussian Parliament year after year with a 
glorious budget showing a large surplus, in lieu 
of the sad deficits of old. 

Camphausen is also one of the leading Prussian 
members of the German Federal Council, and Vice- 
President of the Prussian ministry, and he may be 
said to be practically one of the Vice-Chancellors 
of the German empire, Delbrlick being the other. As 
a signal mark of his high consideration, the emperor 
has bestowed upon him the Order of the Eed Eagle 
of the first class. 

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Men who have made the 


In his titanic task of reconstructing the political system 
of Prussia and Germany — and of Europe — Bismarck 
has been most efficiently seconded throughout by a body 
of able men, such as it has perhaps never before in 
the world's history been the good fortune of empire 
or kingdom to possess for state servants, conjointly at 
one and the same period of time. 

Among the moat eminent of this body, which may 
truly le called the staff of the great leader Bismarck, 
rank Bulow, Thile, Abeken, iE^di, the two Philips- 
boms, Keudell, Hatzfeld, MicbaeUs, and, most es- 
pecially, Delbrtack and Lothor Bucher. All these 
and many more of the same exalted order of intellect 
have largely shared in the making of the new German 
empire. Brief memoirs of the two last named, by 
w ay of general illustration of the class, may there- 
fore well be permitted to find a small comer here. 

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New German Empire. 



"Dee inneten GefiigeB Soon, 
£ia (reaer, staikei Atbeitsheld, 
Ob anoh von Beinem rtiUen lima 
Man wenig hdrt nor in der Wolf 

(Which may be briefly parapbiaaed : — The " Roon " of the em- 
pire's innei Btractnie ; a valioDt, indefatigable worker, albeit 
the trarapet of fbme may not loudly sound the praiees of hia 
rilent BchJOTements.) 

Maetin Fbederick Rudolf Delbeuck, now Prusrian 
minister of state, and President of the Gemian 
Imperial Chancellery Office, was born in Berlin in 
1817. His father, John Frederick Gottlob (i.e. 
Praise God) DelbrUck, who died in 1830, at Zeitz, 
as pastcHT and Buperintendent, had been for nine years, 
from 1800 to 1809, tutor to the two eldest princes 
of' the royal house of Prussia, the Crown Prince, 
afterwards King Frederick William IV., and Prince 
William, the present German emperor. The two 
princes always bore their first teacher in grateful 
remembrance, bcBtowing many signal favours upon 
the son. 

Young DelbrUck lost his mother when he was 
barely eix, and his father when he had only just 
attained the age of thirteen. Fortunately, Pastor 

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Men who have made the 

DelbrUck, ere he died, had himself thoroughly- 
grounded his son in all the branches of a sound 
practical preparatory education, so that the boy of 
thirteen was a marvel of solid learning and extensive 

After attending the excellent gymnasium of Halle 
for about three years longer, young Delbriick, at the 
exceptionally early age of scarce sixteen, entered upon 
the study of law and political economy, first at Bonn, 
then at Gottingen, and lastly at Berlin, where he also 
served his year as a volunteer in the army, along 
with his most intimate Mend, young Fhilipsborn, 
who was afterwards for many years Postmaster 
General of Prussia, until he was at length succeeded, 
some four years ago, by Stephen, the actual Post- 
master-General of the German empire. 

At the age of twenty, DelbrUck passed his first 
law examination, when he was attached as auscultator 
(the initiatory step on the law-ladder in the Prussian 
state service) to the county and city court of Halle. 
Two years after, in 1839, he was transferred to the 
administrative branch, and sent to Mersebuig, where 
he remained two years, working his hardest to acquire 
a thorough practical mastery of the business and 
routine in every department of the administration 
accessible to the ardent young ofGcial, and adding 
largely to his store of poUtical, economic, and 
financial knowledge. 

One of the most gratifying results of his ardent 

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Neva German Empire. 

and intelligeiit labour at this important period of his 
life was that, when he presented himself, in 1842, to 
paas the second, higher state examination, he both 
surprised and enchanted his examineis, as much by 
his manifest sagacity and penetration, as by the 
extent and sotmdness of his lore, more eapeciaUy in 
the vast domain of political economy. 

The first consequence of his brilliant success was 
his immediate transfer firom his subordinate position 
at Merseburg to a much more important office in 
the general revenue department of the Ministry of 
Finance at Berlin. Here he had the good fortune 
to find himself placed under the immediate guidance 
and tuition of one of the soundest administrative 
officials in the Prussian service, Privy-Councillor 
KUhne, whom be took for his model in his own 
official career. 

A year after, in 1843, Delbrilck was promoted to a 
higher position in another branch of the exchequer — 
the section for trade and commerce, to wit — which 
was then presided over by Privy-Councillor Beuth, 
another great administrator of the time, and the actual 
founder of the commercial policy of Prussia. Beuth 
was a man of singularly wide, liberal, and advanced 
views in political economy, who, although himself too 
much trammelled and confined then by the old pig- 
tail element rampant under the feeble-minded King 
Frederick William IV. to give full practical expres- 
sion and effect to his own enlightened conceptions, 

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Men who have made the 

yet did implant in the mind of his favourite pupil and 
follower, Delbriick, tbe ae^ which haa bome such 
excellent &uit since, in giving freedom of expansion 
and motion to trade and industry in Germany. 

In 1844 DelbrUck was transferred to the new Board 
of Trade, then first constituted in Prussia under the 
direction of Privy-Counciller Ronne, another man of 
liberal views and high administrative capacity. 

Four years after, in March, 1848, Delbriick, though 
only thirtynane years old then, was appointed a 
ministerial director in the Camphausen ministry, and, 
after the retirement of the latter, chief of the newly- 
created Ministry of Commerce, with the rank and title 
of an actual privy superior councillor of government — 
a splendid position to be achieved by one compara- 
tively 80 young, and after only eleven years of office, 
and certainly one of the rarest instances on record of 
most exceptionedly rapid promotion in the Prussian 
state service. 

Although still sadly fettered and restrained in his 
freedom of action by the unpropitioos conditions of 
the heavy times through which Prussia was then 
passing, Delbriick, in his new, comparatively inde- 
pendent, and highly influential position, strove, not- 
withstanding, to the best of his ability and power, and 
with marked success, to give to the commercial policy 
of Prussia, confided to his guidance, the impulse of 
his own enlightened views and liberal aspirations. 

In 1851 the clouds of a great peril were gathering 


New German Empire. 

over Prussia. Austria, not satisfied with having im- 
posed upon her hated rival the moral degradation of 
OlmUtz, sought also to inflict upon the PniBsiau 
exchequer a heavy material loss. 

The Austrian minister, Bruck, suddenly proposed 
the acceesioD of the entire Austrian monarchy to the 
German Customs Union (ZoUverein), of which Prussia 
was the ostensible head and leader. Now, the Austrian 
crown lands might safely be calculated to consume a 
very small proportion only of goods liable to duly, 
whilst the total proceeds of the duties raised in all 
the lands of the Union were, according to this pretty 
Austrian scheme, to be distributed among the 
members of the Union in proportion to the number 
of inhabitants in the several countries — which of 
course would give Austria just the one clear half of 
the total revenue I 

Even leaving out of consideration the enormous 
accession of political power Austria must necessarily 
derive from being placed at the head of a customs 
association numbering some 70,000,000 souls, it was 
not likely that Prussia, even under the baneful 
influences then swaying her destiny, should consent 
to submit quietly to the heavy sacrifice of money 
involved in the proposal 

So Delbrlick found it comparatively easy to decline 
the proferred honour of Austria's accession to the 
Zollverein. And, most likely, Bruck bad never even 
dreamt of a possible success of his arro^nnt scheme 


300 Men who have Tnade the 

but had Bimply put it forward by way of intro- 
ductioD to a much more msidious and dangerous 
proposal which followed soon after— the oflFer, to wit, 
of a treaty of commerce with Prussia and the 
Zollverein. The offer was closed simply with the 
trifling proviso that the ZoUverein should renounce 
the right of making alterations in the tariff without 
the express consent and sanction of Austria ! 

As the South German states of the Zollverein had 
been gained over to Austria's views, DelbrUck found 
himself placed in a most ticklish position. However, 
he skilfully temporized to gain a Httle time, which 
he turned to the best account by opening secret 
negotiations with the Steuerverein, a Customs Union 
then existiog between Hanover, Oldenburg, and Lippe, 
which lay just Uke a wedge between the eastern and 
western provinces of Prussia. 

His untiring energy and consummate skill carried 
the day, and in September, 1851, Hanover, Olden- 
burg, and Lippe acceded to the Prussian ZoUverein. 
The territorial extension of the Union thus gained in 
the north left it no longer a matter of primary and 
(Kiramount importance to retain the South German 
states d, tout prix, and Prussia saw herself accord- 
ingly placed in a position to leave to the recalcitrants 
the alternative of consenting to the renewal of the 
treaty with her, or submitting to be cut off entirely 
from the sea-shore. 

They preferred, of course, to do the former, and 

,_,:! by Google 

New German Empire, 

DelbrUck had the satisfaction of concluding at Berlin, 
on the 4th of April, 1853, a new treaty for twelve 
years embracing all the states of the Union. 

Soon after this great achievement, DelbrUck, moving 
resolutely onward in the path of commercial reform 
and progress, concluded a treaty of commerce with 
France, which placed the Zollverein on the same trade 
footing in that country as England and Belgium. 

In 1862 the renewed machinations and intrigues 
of Austria again gravely imperilled the continued 
existence of the Prussian Zollverein. 

On the 29th of March of that year DelbrUck had 
signed the draft of a new commercial treaty with 
France, and Austria was now using her most malig- 
nant efforts to procure the rejection of this treaty 
by the South German states, and the ultimate 
secession of the latter from the Prussian Customs 
Union. Misled by Austria's evil counsels, and mis- 
guided in a great measure by their blind political 
enmity to the great North German kingdom, the 
South German states showed themselves more than 
half disposed to break up the Union, to the sa<;ri6ce 
even of their own interests. 

But DelbrUck, finding himself now most efficiently 
supported and upheld in his commercial policy by the 
new Prussian premier, Bismarck, who had definitively 
taken the helm of the state on the 9th of October, 
1862, battled vigorously and victoriously against the 
crafty machinations of Austria, and the patent ill-will 

, I by Google 

302 Men who have made the 

of the South German states. In his efforts to over- 
come the malevolent opposition of these latter, he 
received most valuable aid at the bands of tbe late 
King John of Saxony, who, disregarding alike the 
flolicltations and promptings of the pro-Austrian 
court and camarilla petticoat clique around him, and 
the wily counsels of Beust, declared for the renewal of 
the Prusaiaji Customs Union and the ratification of 
the new Franco-Prussian treaty of commerce. 

So Delbriick in the end victoriously overcame all 
obstacles thrown in the way of the ratification of the 
treaty by all the states of the Union, which was ac- 
complished on the 12th of October, 1864. 

In the course of tbe same year he negotiated a 
treaty of commerce with Austria, and three years 
later, after successful negotiations with England and 
Belgium, he concluded a treaty of commerce with 
Italy, on the Slst of August, 1865. 

But, whilst thus brilliantly successful in his efforts 
to consolidate the Zollverein, and to improve its 
external relations, DelbrUck found that he could 
make, but scant progress in another at least equally 
important direction — to wit, the improvement of the 
inner rules and regulations, and the tariff arrange- 
ments of tbe Union, as he bad constantly and in- 
variably to meet on this field the most' stubborn 
opposition on the part of the ministers of the several 
governments constituting the Union, who were full 
of individual whims and prejudices in commercial 

New German Empire. 303 

and finaocial matters and politico-economic questions, 
and most uncompromising and unyielding in the 
assertion of their own opinions. 

However, when the great events of 1866 had in- 
calculably increased the power and influence of 
Prussia, Delbrlick at once seized the favourable 
opportunity to strengthen his own hands in the coun- 
cils of the Union, by proposing to summon a Customs 
Parliament, to give the people in the several states 
an equal share with their governments in the 
deliberations and resolutions of the general council. 

Delbriick's demand was acceded to by the other 
members of the Union, and a new treaty was con- 
cluded at Berlin on the 8th of July, 1867, which 
vested the direction of the affairs of the Zollverein 
jointly in the Customs Federal Council and the 
Customs Parliament. 

The beneficial results of this great step in advance 
soon became manifest in more than one direction. 
Delbrlick, powerfully supported now by the Cus- 
toms Parliament, naturally so much better able than 
a conclave of narrow-viewed, prerjudiced officials could 
possibly be expected to be to justly appreciate the 
practical chiefs wise measures, found it no longer 
impracticable to give the fullest effect to his own 
enlightened views and aspirations. 

On the 11th of August, 1867, Delbrtick was named 
President of the Chancellery Office of the North Ger- 
man Confederation. This office was created to conduct 


304 Men who have made tlie 

the affaira of the new North German Confederation 
under the supreme guidance of the Federal chancellor, 
who took upon himself the sole and undivided 
peaponsibility of the office. 

Bismarck, who has barely ever yet blundered in 
the choice of the fittest instruments for his purpose 
(not even excepting Amim, who, moreover, was not 
his own uncontrolled choice), hit upon DelbrUck as 
the best man for the new office, and the event 
has since amply proved the sagacity of the selec- 
tion. DelbrUck's advanced Liberd views on political 
and economic questions, his enlightened mind and 
clear, practical intellect, hia vast knowledge and 
extensive acquirements, his immense business ca- 
pacity and marvellous power of working, found the 
freest scope now for the most beneficial exercise. 

DelbrUck, in his capacity as Chief of the Federal 
ChanceUery, had to act also as the representative of 
the chancellor at the Diet and in the ministerial 
cabinet, and in the discussion and determination of 
all questions relating to the chancellor'a German 
policy and the promotion of the chancellor's own 
views. Indeed, President DelbrUck, who was named 
also Prussian minister of state, to enable him to 
maintain undisturbed the indispensable harmonious 
action between the Federal and the Prussian govern- 
ment, might well be called Bismarck's own special 

In this highly important position, DelbrUck 


New German Empire. 

speedily found the welcome opportunity also of dis- 
playing another of his great statesmanlike qualities ; 
he revealed himself as an accomplished parliamentary 
speaker and excellent debater. There is no dazzUng 
ornamentation, no filagree work, about his speeches 
in Parliament ; they always go straight to the point, 
as they are succinct, dear expositions of what the 
speaker has to say and intends to convey to the 
hearer's mind and understanding. 

Among Delbrilck's most brilliant oratorical suc- 
cesses may be mentioned, more particularly, the great 
speech dehvered by him on the 5th of December, 
1870, in which he reported on the treaties concerning 
the accession of the South German states to the 
Federation, lucidly explaining the origin and nature 
of these treaties, and expressing hia fervent hope to 
see accomplished at length the political union of the 
great German Fatherland 

Upon the establishment of the new German empire, 
DelbrUck at once assumed the function of President 
of the new Imperial Chancellery office, which he 
retains to the present day. 

"When, in the spring of 1871, the great dotation 
question was submitted to the new German Parliament, 
the House voted an amendment, proposed by the com- 
mittee with the assent of the government, sanctioning 
the grant of dotations also to German statesmen who 
had prominently contributed to the creation of the 
new empire. It was universally felt at the time that 

roi. II. I Google 

Men who have made the 

DelbrUck's name ought to stand 6r8t and foremost 
on the list. 

Field -Marshal Bliicher reposed the most unbounded 
confidence in his chief of the staif, General Gneisenau, 
and had the most implicit faith ia his universal know- 
ledge and the infinite versatility of his talents. It 
is said that when the university of Oxford, on the 
occasion of BlUcher's visit to England, presented to 
him the doctorate of laws, tlie old marshal, in whose 
mind all doctors were indissolubly connected with 
physic, would only consent to accept the proffered 
honour on condition that Qneisenau should be ap- 
pointed his dispensing apothecary. The good old 
man, who was conscientious in his way, and naturally 
misdoubted his own skill in the leech line, trusted 
that Gneisenau would bafely see him through all 
difficulties that might attend the exercise of the new 
profession so unexpectedly thrust upon him. 

Bismarck is in the habit of calling Delbrilck his 
"Gneisenau." It would certainly be impossible to 
show a higher appreciation of the great president 
and his eminent servicea 

by Google 

New German Empire. 



LoTHAR BccHER, Actual Privy Councillor of Lega- 
tion, and Councillor Reporter in the Prussian Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs, is universally and rightly believed 
to be Bismarck's moat intimate and most trusted 
adviser. He is a man of vast capacity and extensive 
acquirements, and, next to Delbrtick, the hardest 
worker in Germany. 

Lothar Bucher was bom on the 25th of October, 
1817, at Neustettin, where his father was professor at 
the Hedwig gymnasium. In 1821, Professor Bucher 
was transferred to the gymnasium at Koslin, in 
Pomerania, where his son received accordingly his 
preparatory education. Gifted with quick appre- 
hension and a retentive memory, the boy distin- 
guished himself greatly at school, and advanced rapidly 
through the several classes and forms of the gym- 
nasium, until, at the age of eighteen, in 1835, he 
passed a brilliant examination of fitness for higher 
university studies. 

He was sent to Berlin, where he devoted himself to 
the very hardest and most persevering study of the 
law, cultivating also, with ardent zeal, the philosophy 
of Hegel. 


Men who have made the 

In the autumn of 1838 he passed his first law ex- 
amination, and was soon after appointed auscultator 
at the upper provincial court at Koslin. Some five 
years after, he was appointed to an assessorship, 
and, about midsummer 1843 he was sent to Stolp, 
where he was attached to the provincial and city 
court, and had also intrusted to him the adminis- 
tration of justice in several so-called patrimonial 
courts, or manor courts. 

In the latter capacity, more especially, he obtained 
a clear insight into the actual condition of the farmers, 
the peasantry, and the cultivators of the soil, and 
the many glaring abuses which the old feudal system 
still flourishing there made the unhappy land under 
its sway endure. Bucher, a man of vast, kindly 
sympathies, soon took a generous dislike to the 
objectionable state of things he found existing in 
his justiciary district ; so he naturally became a re- 

A small provincial town in Pomerania is not 
exactly the place where one may expect to find great 
literary and scientific treasures and resources. Now, 
there are some exceptionally rich intellectual natures 
that find it next to impossible to give their faculties 
even an instant's absolute repose. There is a noble 
lord living now, an ex-chancellor, one of England's 
most eminent legislators, and one of the kindliest and 
best of men, who could not abstain &om active 
mental work even during the few brief minutes of 

New Oerman Empire. 

his daily shaving, hut must turn them to profitable 
accouBt by committing to memory, among other 
things, the whole of Milton's immortal epic. 

Bncher belongs to the same high category of men. 
With his immense capacity for work and his insa- 
tiable craving for intellectual occupation, he, hap- 
pening to come across " Rottcck and Welcker's State 
Lexicon," took the ciirious notion into his head to 
go through the bulky work from the first line to 
the last. 

The radical constitutionalism and the constitutional 
radicalism of thia famous production of the two 
Liberal professors exercised a decisive influence upon 
his mind, made specially receptive for this kind of 
teaching by the vety large dose of Hegelian philo- 
sophy which had been administered to it whilst 
Bucher was pursuing his studies at the university 
of Berlin. His political ideas were thus naturally 
directed into an ultra-radical channel 

No wonder then that when, in the spring of 1848, 
the town and district of Stolp elected him their 
representative at the new National Assembly at 
Berlin, he should take at once a leading position 
among the most advanced radical reformers. In 
November, 1848, he joined in the revolutionary re- 
fusal of the Assembly to grant the crown the right 
of levying taxes. 

After the dissolution of the National Assembly, 
Bucher was, in the spring of 1849, elected by his 

: Google 

310 Men v>ho have made the 

former constitueats a member of the Second Prussian 
Chamber. Here he added to his old sins and offences 
against the now all-powerful royal and feudalist re- 
actionary party, his stinging report on the motion 
declaring illegal the royal decree which placed Berlin 
in a state of siege. 

In 1 850 the reaction thought fit to arraign Bucher 
and some forty other leaders in the old tax-refusal 
movement of November, 1848, before the public 
tribunals. Bucher was aware that he was the prin- 
cipal accused in the matter, the other forty being 
drawn in simply for decency's sake, that the proceed- 
ing might not look too monstrous. He also knew 
that at that particular juncture, and under the pecu- 
liar circumstances of the case, there was really no 
chance of an acquittal, and that his state career in 
Prussia might fairly be considered at an end, even 
should he abide the almost certain condemnation, and 
submit to his sentence without murmuring. 

He resolved, therefore, to withdraw himself from 
the power of his enemies. Whibt the jury empanelled 
to try him had retired to deliberate upon their ver- 
dict, he cunningly gave the police oflScer set to guard 
him the slip, and made his escape to England. 

It would seem to have been his intention at first 
to try for a position at the English bar. A brief 
sojourn in London sufficed to open his eyes to the 
fact, that the realization of this intention would talte 
him long years. So, as he had to work for his living. 

New German Empire. 

he preferred becoming a member of the fourth estate. 
For some ten years he supplied certain leading news- 
papers in Germany with a series of brilliant articles. 
His contributions to the Berlin National Zeitung, 
more especially, attracted general attention through the 
soundness of the information given in them as much 
as through the lucid style in which they were written. 

But Bucher was always a man of very clear mind. 
In London he bad most excellent opportunities 
afforded him of becoming intimately acquainted with 
the history of the British constitution, and of study- 
ing the apparently so complicated, yet in reality so 
beautifully simple, wheelwoik of that marvellous 
growth and maturation of ages. His eyes soon 
opened to the real value of the doctrines imbibed 
by him out of the pages of Rotteck and Welcker, 
and conned over in his former intercourse with the 
ultra radicals of the whilom famous National Assem- 
bly at Berlin. 

Bucher was also always a most sincere man. It 
would have been impossible for him to conceal the 
gradual change in his political views from the Ger- 
man papers to whom he was sending contributions 
&om London. This gave rise to dissensions between 
him and these journals, and led, among other things, 
to a long-protracted polemical discussion between 
him and the Berlin National Zeitung, then the 
uncompromising organ of the most advanced Liberal 
section in politics and political economy in Prussia. 

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Men who have made the 

The quarrel was slightly envenomed by certain here- 
tical deviations of Bucher'a from his former pro- 
fessions of pure faith in the doctrines of absolute 
free trade. 

Still, these polemics notwithstanding, Bucher con- 
tinued to contxibute articles to most of the papers 
with which he was connected at this time. In 1856 
Bucher went to Paris, where he remained till the 
close of the first Paris International Exhibition, as 
reporter and correspondent for several leading papers 
in Germany. 

During his residence in London, Bucher had come 
into contact with a multitude of Englishmen ; also with 
a great many political refugees from other countries 
than Germany. He had intimately known Joseph 
Mazzini, Ledru Rollin, Kossuth, Louis Blanc, Gar- 
rido, and many other non-German exiles from the 
land of their birth, and he found the whole batch of 
them intensely national, and every one of them most 
warmly enthusiastic for the special people to whom he 
happened to belong. The German refugees alone 
seemed to constitute an exception from this general 
rule of particularism, and to wish to embrace the 
whole world within the wide range and reach of their 
universal sympathies. 

From his experience of men and things in this line, 
clear-headed Lothar Bucher had already in London 
drawn the great lesson for himself that it behoves a 
sensible practical man to restrict bis patriotic mani- 

New German Empire. 313 

festations and aspirations in the first place rather to 
his own particiil^ country and nation, and more 
especially not to indulge overmuch in the bubble 
of Bo-called "nationalitiea." His Paris experience 
confirmed him thoroughly in his ■ new opinion on 
this matter. No wonder, then, that he now dropped 
absolutely the hollow, sentimental, and thoroughly 
anti-historic theories anent the rights of every small 
nation, race, and tribe, to keep up an arbitrary inde- 
pendent existence within the great conglomeration 
to which it might happen to belong. 

This extraordinary doctrine was much advocated 
at the time in Germany. Bucher boldly maintained, 
on the contrary, that the great German people, who 
had actually bestowed upon certain alien races and 
tribes settled in Germany all the blessings of civili- 
zation enjoyed by them, had also an indefeasible 
right to exert a preponderating political influence 
over them. 

Now this doctrine of Bucher's went right against 
the grain of the German Liberals, and Bucher, who 
had meanwhile returned to Berlin in consequence of 
the general amnesty proclaimed by King William, 
foimd himself very soon at loggerheads with his 
former political associates and friends. 

Still he continued hia contributions to the National . 
Zeitung for about a twelvemonth longer, after which 
he tried to obtain employment in the Berlin Tde- 
graph administration. . „ , 

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314 Men wlio Imve made the 

CoDBcious of the extent and soundness of bia legal 
attainments, he made up hia mind at last to apply for 
his reinstatement into the law service of the state, 
his intention being at the time to qualify himself for 
the position of a barrister or pleader before the courts 
of law. 

A friend of Lothar Bucher's undertook to sound 
Bismarck about this. Now the great minister had 
been peeuliaily struck with the sound sense and 
marvellous logic of Bucher's articles, more especially 
in the National Zeitung. He, with his sharp sight 
and clear insight, reckoned up the man who had 
penned these articles, and divined the great spirit 
in him, kindred to his own. 

So he sent word to Lothar Bucher that, if he 
would consent to pass a period of probation in the 
service of the Foreign Office, it was his (Bismarck's) 
opinion that he would do much better there than 
in the law career, 

Bucher eagerly accepted the opening thus offered 
to him, and entered the Foreign Office in December, 
18C4. Of course, be very soon made his mark. 
A man of such transcendent abilities, and such 
enormous working capacity, could not possibly have 
failed in securing a firm footing within the briefest 
possible period of time. The year after, already^ 
in 1865, he was raised to the rank of Councillor 
of Legation, and definitively appointed to a high 
position in the Forei^ Office. 

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Neva German Smjnre. 315 

In December, 1866, he acted as recorder of 
the minutes at the conference of the plenipoten- 
tiaries charged to draw up the coustitution of the 
North German Federation; and in 1867 he was 
appointed Actual Privy Councillor of Legation and 
Councillor Reporter in the Ministry of Foreign 
AfiFairs — which may fairly be iustanced as an 
almost unheard-of rapidity of promotion in one of 
the most difficult departments of the state service 
in Prussia. 

Bismarck, who by this time fully knew the im- 
mense value of such a man as Lothar Bucher, made 
it a point to have the brilliant councillor always 
as much as possible in his own immediate vicinity. 
Thus, in 1869, Lothar Bucher was fuU five months 
with Bismarck at Varzin, and in 1870 he was again 
at Varzin, with the chancellor, from May up to the 
outbreak of the war with France, on both occa- 
sions taking a vast amount of hard work oflf the 
chancellor's shoulders. 

When Bismarek left for France, Bucher remained 
behind, intrusted with the management of the most 
intimate affairs of the Foreign Office. But even 
in September already, when Councillor Abeken was 
seized with his fatal illness, Bismarck sent for 
Bucher to replace this ti-usty counsellor and aid 
near his person. 

Bucher joined the Chancellor of the North Ger- 
man Confederation at Ferriferes, and remained thence- 
• . Coo 

316 Men vAo have made the 

forward with him np to the concluBion of peace, 
giving the chancellor the most valuable aid of his 
brilliant talenta, and im marvellously aound poli- 
tical knowledge and clear insight into the innermost 
nature of affairs. 

In March, 1871, again, Lothar Bucher attended 
Bismarck at the final conference of Frankfort-on- 
the-Main, which terminated so smoothly in the 
conclusion of the definitive peace between Germany 
and France on the 10th of May, 1871. 

Three years and a half have passed since then, 
and Lothar Bucher still retains his position and 
influence with the great chancellor. Strange to 
say, perhaps, these two men, starting from diame- 
trically opposite extremes in political life, seem to 
have met exactly half-way on their course, Bis- 
marck having dropped by the way all bis spurious, 
declamatory ultra -royaUsm and Junkerdom, and 
Lothar Bucher having rid himself of the fearful 
encumbrance of Hegel, Rotteck, and Welcker, and 
of all the other ultra-radical impediments of his 
hot youth. 

There are but too many political pretenders in 
Germany coveting the iuheritance of the great Bis- 
marck. Most of these ambitious aspirants are the 
veriest pigmies — very clever men, no doubt — aye, 
almost as clever as Harry Amim ; for all that, 
lacking the least approach to the great chancellor's 
genius. Lothar Bucher has more of Bismarck in 


New Oerman Empire. 317 

his composition than all the Savignys and Amims, 
and the other still smaller cattle that would follow 
in their wake, and whom the eminent Berlin corre- 
spondents of certain London papers are so foolishly 
bent upon parading daily in their Berlin letters. 

by Google 

Men who have niade the 


" Die Kruppiache Kauone, 
Des Dreyse sein Gewehi, 
Die waren gar oicht olioe. 
Die Erbswtirat anch half sebr." 

— Kotwjbkb's SoldaltnlUd. 

(Rrupp's cannon and Dreyse'ii needle-gun were by no means nnim- 
pnrtant adjuncts, and the pea-eaugage also contributed largely 
lo the great eucceu.) 

In all ware, from the earliest antiquity, the quality of 
the weapons of the combatants has formed a most 
importiiDt item of consideration in the calculation 
of the chances of success. In modem warfare, when 
anns of precision play so preponderating a part, the 
condition of the general and special armaments of 
the troops must necessarily fall with double weight 
into the scale. 

The living machines of war that had come forth from 
the skilful hands of the Roons, the Albrechts, the 

New German Empire. 

HindersiDS, the HoUebeus, aud mimy otliera of the 
same high capacity of organization, were unquestion- 
ably of the most admirable make and the follest 
efficiency. Yet, suppose they had had to take the 
field with the old percussion gun and the venerable 
smooth-bore, njuzzlo-loading, bronze cannon of the 
past, surely their chances of success would have been 
much less promising than the perfection of their 
armament actually made them. 

The ingenious inventors and makers of this arma- 
ment may therefore weU be permitted to bring up 
the rear here, at least, of the German notabilities 
of the present day. 

John Nicholas Dkeyse was born on the 20th 
of November, 1787, at Sommerda, a small township 
in the Erfurt district His father, John Christian 
Dreyse, was a master locksmith, pretty well to do for 
a man in his position. From his seventh to his 
fourteenth year Nicholas went to the city school 
of Sommerda, where he received a sound primary 
education. Being naturally fond of mechanics, he 
took to his father's trade from choice. At the age 
of fourteen he became an apprentice in his father's 

Digilized by Google 

Men who have made the 

He had soon completely mastered the elements of 
the craft, and ^reeably surprised his father by his 
manual dexterity, as weU as by the happy ingenuity 
of his improvements in locks and other articles in 
his line of business. 

When his apprenticeship was over, young Nicholas, 
after the universal manner of German workmen of 
the period, went forth to wander into the world 
in search of work, and to acquire a more extensive 
and perfect knowledge of his craft This was in 

On lus wanderings he happened to come upon the 
great slaughter field of Jena, on the 15th of October, 
the very day after the battle which had laid Prussia 
in the dust. He was then a youth of nineteen. The 
awful sight of heaps of dead bodies all around made 
a very powerful and most sad impression upon his 
young mind, the sadder, as he was a youth of ardent 
patriotism. He took up from the ground a Prussian 
gun, of the venerable old Brown Bess type, and 
examined it with the eye of a skilful mechanist. 
He found it sadly wanting in everything required to 
constitute an effective arm. Whenever he related 
the story afterwards, he used always to add that 
this Prussian gun seemed to him at the time to have 
been expressly made with a view of shooting 
round the comer. It was the worst article of the 
kind then in existence. 

Here, on this field of death, the first thought came 

A'iew German Empire. 

into his mind, to improve the mechanism of the 
Prussian fire-arms. Soon after, he had occasion to 
see a French infantry gun of the so-caUed pattern 
of 1779, which was then the most perfect of its 
kind in the world. 

He now worked at his trade for three years at 
Altenburg, Dresden, and some other places in 
Gfermany, striving more particularly, and whenever 
the opportunity offered, to improve his knowledge 
and skill in the construction of fire-arms. He was 
always trying one improvement or other, but with 
only indifferent success, as the French 1779 pattern 
seemed to him then the most perfect model. 

In 1809 he was at last enabled to gratify the 
most ardent wish of his heart — to go to France, 
which at the time enjoyed the deserved reputation 
that the most ingenious and skilled locksmiths, and 
the best makers of fire-arms in the world, were to be 
found there. 

Soon after his arrival in Paris he had the good 
fortune to obtain employment in the famous gun- 
factory of the Swiss officer Pauli, then under the 
special patronage of the Emperor Napoleon I. Pauli 
took a great liking to young Dreyse, whom he found 
a most excellent craftsman and an indefatigable 
worker. He confided to him that the Emperor had 
asked him to try to construct a breech-loading gun. 
This notion, which Napoleon might possibly have 
taken from the toy-guns of children, or from having 

VOL. II. .,,,,,.„,.,Goo8k- 

322 Men who have made the 

accidentally come across some of the breech-loading 
cannons that would seem to have been in partial use 
about the year 1770, flashed upon Dreyse's mind as a 
complete revelation. He knew now at once where he 
had to direct his attention first in bis intended con- 
struction of an improved infantry gun. 

Pauli succeeded, after infinite labour, in producing 
a breech-loading gun, but of such complicated con 
structioD that it required most skilful handling to 
use it with proper efiect, and was entirely unsuited 
to the common run of soldiera Napoleon was so 
pleased, nevertheless, that he bestowed upon the 
inventor a gift of 800?. and the Cross of the Legion 
of Honour. However, Pauli felt so discouraged by 
his comparative failure, that he gave up the breech- 
loading notion altogether. 

Not so Dreyse, who was of a most persevering turn 
of mind. All the time he remained in France, up to 
1814, he turned every spare hour to the best account 
in thinking of what had now become the all-absorb- 
ing object of his life — the construction of a simple 
breech- loading gun that might be handled and used 
effectively by any private soldier. 

In 1814 he returned to Sommerda, to his father's 

In 1821 he married, and established soon after, in 
partnership with a merchant of the name of Kronbie- 
gel, a factory for the making of iron naUs, buttons, 
and other articles in the so-called cold way, by 

Netv German Empire. 

machinery. After Kronbiegel's death, a Mr. Collen- 
busch joined Dreyse in the business, which continues 
in existence to the present day. Dreyse was the 
first in Germany to produce these machine-made 

Meanwhile the percussion-gun had been invented, 
in 1815, in England, and the percussion-caps also, 
though two Frenchmen, Pidat and Debonbert, have 
since then successfully claimed the latter invention for 
theirs. In 1822 the new invention found its way 
into Germany, where extensive experiments were at 
once instituted, more particularly in Prussia, with a 
view to substitute the new percussion lock for the 
old flint lock. 

Dreyse naturally became at once one of the most 
eager and persevering experimenters on this field. He 
more especially brought all his technical knowledge 
to hear upon the preparation of ignitmg or exploding 
material for the discharge of percussion-guna Aided 
by the chemical knowledge of a friend of hia, Baudius, 
an apothecary in Sommerda, he succeeded in turning 
fulminate of mercury to account for this purpose. 
In 1824 he established a factory of percussion-caps 
at Sommerda, in partnership with CoUenbusch. The 
Prussian government granted the firm a patent for tie 
new caps. In the same year Dreyse also obtained a 
patent for his newly-invented " steam generator." For 
this patent he was indebted chiefly to tiie patronage 
of Privy Councillor Beuth. 

Y 2 ,,,,_,.ib;.Googk' 

Men who have made the 

After this, Dreyse turned his particular attention 
to devising the means of carrying into practical 
effect an old favourite notion of his, which had for 
its chief object to change the place of the igniting 
or exploding process from the outer to the inner 
part of the gun, and also the construction of a 
cartridge that should contain within itself the whole 
of the materials required for the charge of the gun. 

After some three years' hard work, and many 
bitter disappointments, he succeeded at last, in 1827, 
in producing a percussion needle-gun — only a muzzle- 
loader, however. 

He sent models of his new invention to the 
Prussian minister of war, who speedily informed 
him that the weapon had been found unfit for 
practical use in the army, and that he was at liberty 
to dispose of it elsewhere. He thereupon sent models 
to several other governments, also to the Austrian 
minister of war — who sent it back with contemp- 
tuous scorn, telling the presumptuous Prussian gun- 
smith that there was no lack of clever men in 
Austria I Had this conceited minister only been a 
wise man in his generation, and had he accordingly 
tried his hardest to secure the ingenious inventor 
for Austria ! . . . many things might be different, 
perhaps, now from what they are, and even the great 
fact of the new German empire might still remain 
8 bright dream in the pondering brains of German 
patriots I 

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Hew Gervtan Empire. 

Th* present Emperor of Germany, then Prince 
William, happening to be at Weimar in 1829, sent 
for Dreyse. The prince felt much interested in the 
new invention, and induced the Pruasian miniater of 
war to take the matter up anew. 

From 1830 up to 1833, a series of experiments 
were made with Dreyse's gun by a commission of 
officers under the presidency of General Thiele and 
Colonel Neumann, the results of which led to the 
admission of Dreyse into the official service of the 
state, with a sufficient subvention to enable the 
man to devote himself entirely to the improvement 
of his invention. 

The year 1835 saw the birth of the first breech- 
loading needle-gun. But, unhappily, Messrs. Hedtape 
and Routine, if they have it not quite their own 
way in Prussia as much as in certain other lands, 
are yet not without most powerful influence whenever 
they choose to indulge in their favourite practice of 
throwing a wet blanket upon a new discovery or in- 
vention beyond the very limited comprehension of their 
own narrow brains. So it took the patient inventor 
some five years longer, and all the benevolent exertions 
in his favour of General Witzleben, Colonel Priem, 
and some other distinguished officers, to obtain at 
last the king's sanction for a final trial of the 
efficiency of the new arm. The trial commission 
was presided over by Prince Augustus of Prussia, 
who, as well as most of the other general officen, 

,d by Google 

326 Men who Iiave made the 

was firmly convinced in hia own mind that Dreyse's 
gun woidd fail practically, as the cartridges mxist of 
course explode of their own accord after the eighth 
or tenth discharge of the gun. These learned gentle- 
men were grievously disappointed. The new weapon 
stood the test most briUiantly. 

It was only after this great success, in 1840, that 
King Frederick William IV, ordered 60,000 of Dreyse's 
guns, granting the inventor at the same time sufficient 
funds to establish a large needle-gun and ammunition 

On the 15th of October, 1841, just thirty-five years 
after the first idea had entered Dreyse's head to pro- 
duce au efficient gun for the Prussian infantry, the 
new factory entered upon active work. 

Up to 1863 it had supplied 300,000 needle-guns 
to the Prussian army. 

In 1843 Nicholas Dreyae had conferred upon him 
the Order of the Red Eagle of the fourth class ; in 
1846 he was named a Councillor of Commission, and 
decorated with the Red Eagle of the third class. 

He persevenngly continued his experiments in 
fire-arms, turning his attention successfully also to 
improvements in rifled cannon. Even the most cur- 
sory enumeration of his numerous inventions and 
improvements in fire-arms must be omitted here for 
want of space. 

In 1864 the war in Schleswig-Holstein afforded 
a grand opportunity for testing the excellence of 
,_ ibyGoogle 

New German Empire. 

Dreyse's needle-gun. The new weapon stood the 
test admirably. King William was delighted with 
the result, and gratefully bestowed upon the ingeni- 
ous inventor the Prussian Crown Order of the third 
dass, and a patent of nobUity for himself and his 

The productive power of Dreyse's works at Som- 
merda was considerably increased in the years 
1864-65. In the latter year, more especially, the 
number of hands employed reached the high figure 
of 1,500. 

Dreyse lived to witness the splendid success of 
bis creation in the war of 1866. He died on 
the 9th of December, 1867, in the eighty-first year 
of his age. His gun-fiictory, and other works and 
establishments at Sommerda, are now conducted by 
his only son and heir, Francis, who had already 
for long yeMa had the technical direction of the 

This gentleman, who was bom on the 2nd of 
March, 1822, continues to conduct the paternal busi- 
ness with considerable skill and talent. 

Since the Franco-German War of 1870-71, the 
needle-gun has been very considerably improved, as 
the old pattern had been found inferior in efii- 
ciency, range, and rapidity of firing to the French 
chassepot-gun. After many and most varied ex- 
periments, the supreme military authorities of the 
German empire have now finally decided to supply 

Digilized by Google 

328 Men who have made the 

the whole of the German army — with the excep- 
tion of the Bavarians, who have a most excellent 
weapon already in the Werder gun — with a gun 
of a new pattern, made by a Wlirtemberg gun- 
Bmith of the name of Mauser, who lives at Obem- 
dorf. This new pattern is called the Mauser gun 
or rifle. This Mauser gun is said to be in every 
way vastly superior to the chaasepot 

However, as the supply of so lai^e a number as 
the arming of the immense German host requires muat 
necessarily be a work of years, the old pattern 
needle-gun has meanwhile been altered and improved, 
to fit it for immediate service. This improved 
needle-gun is also said by competent judges to be 
superior to the chaseepot of the French infantry. 

Lai^ numbers of the French ctassepots which 
had fallen into the hands of the victors in the 
late war, have also been converted for provisional 
use in the German army. The carbine, for instance, 
with which the light cavalry and a portion of the 
lancers are armed now, is simply a shortened 



Alfeed Keupp was born at Essen, in the district 
of DUsseldorf, on the 12th of April, 1812. His 
father, Frederick Krupp, was the same aa Sreyse's, 


New German Empire. 

a locksmith and worker in steel, in a email way. 
This poor man had an inventive genius, overcast by 
the sad fate of incessant failure in all his efTorts 
to improve the quality of the steel used by him 
for the manufacture of cutting instruments. He 
died in 1827, not yet forty, leaving his business, 
such as it was, to his son Alfred, then a boy of 
under fifteen. 

At the time . of Alfred's birth, Essen was a very 
small place ; indeed, the entire estate of the old Stift 
(Chapter) of Easen, covering an area of some sixty- 
five to seventy English square nulea in extent, had 
then ouly about 1 8,000 inhabitants at the moat. 
Now the population haa multiplied sevenfold, and the 
city of Essen is going on fast towards 60,000 souls I 

This splendid development of the city and circle 
of Essen may fairly be said to be, in a very great 
measure at least, the resxdt and natural concomitant 
of the extraordinary success of Alfred Krupp'a great 
industrial undertaking there. 

After the father's death the boy continued the 
business, aided by two workmen only. But whilst 
naught but failure had attended all Frederick Krupp's 
most earnest eflforts, fortune smiled upon everything 
the son touched. And so it has come to pass, in 
the course of less than fifty years, that the humble 
workshop, which may be seen on the premises to 
the present day, has expanded into one of the most 
gigantic establishments in the world, covering an 


330 Men who have made the 

area of more than an English square mile, and 
occupying 12,000 workmen ! 

Alfred Krupp's is the largest steel-caating establish- 
ment to be found anywhere. It numbers some 600 
furnaces, and close upon 1,000 machines for the making 
of tools and implements alone. There are nigh upon 
a quarter of a million melting crucibles. Some 300 
steam engines, from 1,000 horse-power down to 2 
horse-power, and about 80 steam hammers, from 
50 tons weight down to 2 cwt., are incessantly 
at work. The daily consumption of coal exceeds 
1,700 tons. 

Articlea of cast steel are manufactured here of 
every kind, size, and weight, to the total amount of 
something like 80,000-100,000 tons a year. 

The merest cursory description of such an establish- 
ment as Krupp's is of course altogether out of tlie 
question here ; nor can space be afiForded for the 
slightest sketch of the man's career. 

We must rest content, then, with merely stating 
that Alfred Krupp is a man of high intelligence, vast 
inventive genius, the most patient perseverance and 
endurance, and extraordinary working powei-s. He 
was the first to devise an efficient system of cast- 
ing steel successfully in immense blocks and enor- 
mous maases, and remains even to the present day 
without a serious competitor in his line. 

Alfred Krupp exhibited the first great cast-steel 

block of his manufacture in 1851, at London. This 


New German Empire. 331 

block weighed 2^ tons — a weight unheard of before. 
The largest block competing with Krupp's, which 
was sent to the Eshibition by a Sheffield firm, 
weighed only a ton. Eleven years after, in 1862, 
Krupp sent a block of 25 tons weight to the London 
Exhibition; and in 1867, he sent another to Paris, 
weighing 40 tons. It is said that solid masses of 
steel up to 200 tons weight and above can now 
be cast at Essen 1 

In 1847 Alfred Krupp first conceived the idea of 
casting cannon of steel. In 1851 he sent the first 
six-pounder cast in his factory to the great Exhibition 
at London. The article was not perfect, however, as 
it was cast in two piecea In 1854 the first trial was 
made to teat the power of resistance of "Krupp's 
infants." They stood even some of the most unfair 
tests. Id 1856 Krupp overcame the last difficulties 
in the way of producing steel breech-loaders cast in 
a single piece. 

His first customer for steel cannon was the Viceroy 
of Egypt ; Prussia and Russia soon after followed 
the example set them by the African ruler. Up to 
1858, however, the business was rather slack, no 
more than 100 pieces of ordnance altogether being 
cast at the Essen works. During the seven years 
following, Krupp furnished close upon 3,000 cast-steel 
cannon of all sizes, some of them capable of throwing 
projectiles of a quarter of a ton weight 

In 1867 Krupp astonished the world by his giant 

,_ ibyGoogIc 

332 Men who have made the 

cauDon exhibited at Paris, which was intended to 
throw projectUes of half a ton weight, with a charge 
of 1 cwt. of gunpowder. 

Of late years the manufacture of cast-steel rifled 
breech-loading ordnance at the Esnen establishment 
has taken still greater expausion. 

That Krupp's cauDou have vastly aided in achieving 
the great Prussian and German victories in the field 
is universally admitted. Their efficiency was bril- 
liantly proved as early as 1864 in the Schleswig- 
Holstein campaign. 

However, Alfred Krupp is thoroughly cosmopolitan 
and mercantile in the supply of these splendid engines 
of war — perhaps even beyond what might properly 
be deemed compatible with loyal allegiance to his 
own country, for he freely furnishes the prospective 
enemies of Germany with his rifled ordnance. 

The King of Prussia has bestowed upon Krupp 
the title of Privy Councillor of Commerce. He also 
oflFered him a patent of nobility, which, however, the 
stifl'-necked manufacturer declined accepting. 

The Essen establishment pays in rates and taxes 
something like £24,000 a year. In the early part of 
the present year, Krupp wished to raise a loan of 
£1,500,000. In a few days the subscriptions to this 
loan exceeded £5,000,000 ! 

In conclusion, it remains now simply to briefly 
note that singularly important article of food so 

,_,:! by Google 

New German Empire. 333 

largely used by the German commissariat in the war 
of 1870-71 — the pea-sausage, to wit, and its inge- 
nious compounder. 



That the purveying and victualling department 
must always claim a paramount share of attention 
and care on the part of the leaderR of an army in 
the field, is so self-evident a proposition, that no proof 
or argument need be adduced here in support of it 

No apolc^ can be needed, then, for just tagging 
to the memoirs of the inventor of the needle-gun and 
the cast-steel rifled cannon, a passing mention of the 
name of the man whose ingenuity and knowledge 
as a cook devised the preparation of a savoury, nutri- 
tious preserve for the German army in the field — 
GrUnberg, a culinary artist of Berlin. 

The pea-sausage, which he compounded, consists 
of pea-flour, best beef-suet, bacon (two parts of lean 
to one of fat), onions, salt, and spices. It is one of 
the most nutritious articles of food. Properly made, 
and fitted into paper cases specially prepared for the 
purpose, it will keep unchanged for years in airy 
places. For eating, it may either be cut into small 
cakes, and boiled with water into soup, or it may be 
boiled whole and eaten as a sausage. 

Digilized by Google 

334 Men who have made ike New German Empire. 

The Praaaian government made the inventor, 
Grunberg, a present of 10,000?., and had a manu- 
factory of the article built at Berlin, at the expense 
of the state. At first only about 14,000 lbs. of pea- 
sausage were daUy produced at this establishment ; 
this was soon increased, however, up to ten times the 
quantity, 2,400 males and females being employed 
in the production of this large supply. 

by Google 


A B SEEK, ii. S94. 

^eidi, ii. 294. 

Albert, King of Saxony, ii. 106- 

Albert of Saxony in the Bohemian 

CampsigD of 1866, ii. 124, 125 ; 

during the Commane, ii. 134 ; 

before Paria, ii. 131 ; at St. Privat, 

ii. 127 ; triumphal entry into Dres- 
den, iL 13&. 
Albrecbt, Archduke, ii 63. 
Alexander of HeMe, Prince, Com- 

mandei^in-Chief of the 8th corps 

of the German Confederation army 

in 1866, ii. 241—249. 
Alsen, capture of, ii. 144. 
AlTeoBleben I., General, ii. 370. 
Alrensleben II., General, iL 266— 
„ 270 ; at Mars-le-Toui, iL 98—100 ; 

Amiens, battle of, ii. 178. 
Annexation of Hanover, Heese- 

Cassel, &c, to Pruesia, i. 161. 
Anton, King of Saxony, ii. 112. 
Army Bill, iL 1—2. 
Army Orraunisation Bill, L 251. 
Aschaffenbuig, defeat of the AoBtrians 

at, iL 247. 
Angiutenbtuw, PrinM Frederick of, 

L 129, &e. 
Anrelle de Paladinea, ii. 102 ; and 

the Army of the Loire, iL 263. 
Anitro-PnuHian alliwice and war 

against Denmark in 1664, i. 

Bafauvb, German rictoiy at, it, 

Borneknw, General, iL 270. 

Beaumont, battle of, ii. 75, 129. 
Beaune-Ia -Rolands, battle-of, ii. 1 
Benedek, iL 48, 57, 61, 63. 
Benedetti, L 159. 

Beust, iL 116, 118. 

Beyer, General, ii. 213, 216, 243. 

Bismarck, i, 88 — 257. 

Bismarck, cabal against, i. 227 — 246. 

Bismarck's staff, ii. 294. 

Bismarck of Osterborg, L 1B8. 

Blanckenburg, i. 258. 

Blois, occupation of by the Germ&nti, 

iL 103. 
Bliicher, Marshal, iL 2B. 
Blum, Bobert, ii. 5, 
Blumenan, hattle of, ii. 97. 
Blumentbal, General, iL 71—73,270. 
Bocknm-Dolffs, L 126. 
Bohemian campaign of 1366, ii.48 — 

Bonaparto at Campo Formio and 

Tilsit, i. 176. 
Boniface VIII., Unam SanctamBaU, 

Bouin, Oenenl, L 62—64. 
Boee, General, ii. 97, 270. 
Bonrbaki's movement, iL 221 ; attack 

upon Werder'a position before 

Belfort, ii. 229—333. 
BrandenborK, Count, L 111. 
Bucher, LotSar, iL 307—317. 
Bulow, iL 294. 

Cambbibl, General, ii. SIS, 313, 

Campbansen, Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer and Vice - President of 


the Prussian Mtnistr;, i 
Cuirobeit at Tionville, ii. 

Catholic jonmals and booka in Ger- 
many, i. 287—292. 

Cdibitqr of priesia— Pope Gr^ory 
VII., L317, 318. 

Cbuuf, Geaeral, serin of defeats of, 
il 103, 104. 

Cbuve oF Prussian cavalr; at Vion- 
TiQe, ii. 08, 99. 

Charles of Barana, Prince, Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Confede- 
rate South German army in 1B66, 
ii. 341—249. 

Cherillf , defeat of the French at, ii. 

Chilliers-aux-Bois, defeat of the 
French at, ii. 103. 

Civil Marriage Law, L 249. 

Clamart, attiM^ upon, iL 2Sfi. 

Clement XI. and King Frederick I. 
of Prussia, L 276. 

Clement XIV. (Ganganelli), k 813. 

Cohen (Ferdinand), attempt on Bis- 
marck's life, i. 141 

Contie, camp of, taken bj the 
Germans, Il 104. 

Conbtrini, Cardinal, L 330, 331. 

CoulmierH, battle of^ ii. 254. 

Council of Constance, i, 327 ; of 
Pisa, L 327 ; of Trent, L 328, 332, 

Coarcelles, fight at, it. 160. 

Craujhasr, General, ii. 270. 

Cremer, General, ii. 219, 221. 

Crovn Prince of Pnuaia "knd Ger- 
many, i. 147, iL 33—81 ; and 
Bismarck, meeting between, ii. 48, 
67 ; Grand Master of the Pnisoan 
Lodges, ii 47; addreaa to the 
Grand Land LodM of Germany, it. 
64 ; at Nachod, li 52 ; a printer, 

Dalbbro, ii. 109. 
Debschitz, General, iL 13, 213. 
Begenfeld, General, it 212, 218. 
Delbriick, Preaident, ii 29&— 306. 
Diet, German, at Frankfort — Vote 

of 14th of Jnne, 1866, i 14S. 
Dijon, capture of by the Germans, ii 

Dinkel, Bishop of Aof^fanig, i. 296 

DolUnger and hit coadjutor* in the 
Old-Catholic movement, i 312, 

Domi'ntM ae redemplor noiter Bull, L 

DoDchery, the " Vn Victis" ot, L 72 

Douay, Abel, General, ii 67, 69. 
Dreyse, Francis, ii 327 . 
Dreyse, John Nicbolax, il 319— 32S. 
Droete-Vischering, Archbishop of 

Cologne, ii 23. 
Ducrot's second sortie, ii 133. 
Diippei capture of, ii 88. 
Dupr£, General, ii n't 


Elizabeth, Queen of Prassia, i 9, 10, 

33—41, 143. 162. 
Ems, pDnctuaCion of, i. 2SE>— 202. 
England, Lssker on, ii. 7, 8. 
Etiel, General, u. 272. 

Faidhbrbb, General, atBapaume, ii 
179 ; at St. Qaentm, ii 199. 

Failly, General, at Beanmont, ii 129. 

Falckenstein, General Vogel von, ii 
181—191 ; an artist, ii 183, 184 ; 
chief of the staff in the Schleewig- 
HoUtein war of 1864, ii 184; 
governor of Jutland in 1864, iL 
185; in 18S6, ii 185—188; at 
Montmirail, ii. 183 ; defence of Uw 
Coast lands in 1870, ii. 190. 

Feetetica, General, ii 56. 

Flies, Genera], at Langensalza, i 
158, ii. 243. 

F6rat«T, Prince-Bishop of Brealan, i 

FTan9ois, General, ii 270. 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, meeting of 
German princes at, in 1863, i 127; 
peace of, i 181. 

Fransecky, General, ii 93, 97. 

Frederick Aogustus, King of Saxony, 
ii 114. 

Frederick Charies, Prince, ii B2 — 
105 ; essays on strategic and sta- 
tistic (jaestions, iL 86 ; at Uia- 
sunde, li. 87. 

Frederick William II., i. 3, 200. 

Frederick WiUiam III., i 2—8. 

Frederick William IV., i 2, 8, 13, 
20, 204. 

Frohnhofen, defiatoftfaeHesaianaati 

"■*"■ ,„,_ Gooylc 


Frossard, Genera!, at Spicheren, ii. 

165- 157. 
Pnlda, Epiacopal tneeting at, i. 201 


Gablbntz in Holstein, ii. 169; at 
TiaaUnau and Rogniti, i. 63, ii. 65. 

Gambetto, ii 102 ; plan of an in- 
TfiBion of Sonth Germany, ii. 221. 

G(irib8ldi,ii.214,Sl&, 2ia 

Garibaldi, Menotti, u. 219. 

Gastein, convention of, i. 132. 

Gitschin, -riclory at, ii. 90. 

Gliimer, General— Victory of Nnits, 
ii. 221. 

Goben, General, ii. 192-202 ; with 
Don Carloa in Spain, ii- 193—195 ; 
b Morocco in 1860, il 196 i in the 
DanUh war of 1864, ii. 197 ; in 
the campaign on tte Main, ii. 
197, 198 ; TiotoriooB at Derm- 
bach, ii. 246 ; victorious at Gerchs- 
heim, ii. 248 ; takes KiasiDoen, 
ii 247 ; at Amiens, on the Halluf 

and at Bapaume, ii 

; at Mars- 

la-Tour and Gravelotte, ii. 198 ; at 
Spicheren, ii 156, 19B ; Tictory of 
St. Quentin.ii. 199— 201. 

Goltz, General Ton dei-, at Longeau, 

Oravelotte, battle of, Il 126. 

Griinberg, ii 333—334. 

Haobh, Otto, of the Itwterfturjw 
Ztitung, ii. 12. 

Hallue, battle on the, ii 178. 

Hartmann, General, il 218—265 ; an 
artist, ii. 260 ; an officer in the 
French Bervice from 1811-1815, 
iL 259 ; during the siege of Paris, 
ii. 264—265 ; at Waterloo, ii. 259 ; 
at Weiflsenhurg and Worth, ii 

Hartroann, Prussian Genera], at 
Tobitachau, ii 63. 

Halafeld, ii. 294. 

Herwarth von Eittenfeld, Field-Mar- 
Bhal, ii. 140—150 ; capture of 
Alaen, ii. 144; commander of the 
Army of the Elbe In 1866, ii. 145 ; 
at Koniggrati, 148 ; Governor- 
General of the Rhine Provinces in 
1870, ii. 149 ; jubilee of sixtieth 
anniversary of taking service in 
the army, ii. IS" ; loss of three 
sons at ProbluB, VionviUe, and St. 
Privftt, ii 149. 

Heydt, Von der, PriisRian Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, ii. 278—286. 

Hinderain, General, ii 271—276. 

HolienioUern, house of, ii. 35 — 10. 

HohenzoUern, Prince Leopold of, L 

HoUeben, General, ii. 272. 

Holtsiendorff, General, ii. II. 

Hiihnerwasser, battle of, ii. 146. 

Huas, John, i. 307—312, 327. 

Indemnitt, Bill of, i. 162, 167. 
In&llibility, Papal, L 198, &c 

Jerome of Prague, i 328. 

Jesuits, i. 211. 

Jeauit Expulsion Law, i. 201, 211. 


Jesuit teaching in France, i. 202. 

Jews, treatment of, in Prussia, ii. 

John, King of Sanony, ii 107—121. 
Joseph n.. Emperor of Germany, i. 


Kaiser. Catholic army chaplain, i. 

Komeke, General, at Spicheren, ii. 

Kirolji, Count, Austrian Ambassa- 
dor at Berlin, L 124. 

Keller, General, ii 219, 220 ; cap- 
ture of Frahier and Chenebier l^, 

Kettler, Bishop of Mayence, i 216, 

268, 270. 
KendeU, ii 294. 
Kirchbach, General, ii 270. 
Klapka, Prussian convention with, 

ii. 62. 
Koniggratz, battle of, iL 68, 91. 
KSnigiuhof, capture of, ii 66. 
KremenU, Bishop of Ermeland, i 

264, 272—278. 
Krupp, Alfred, ii. 328-332. 
Knipp, Frederick, ii. 328, 329. 
Kullmann, attempt on Bismarck s 

life, i. 253. 
Kumiuer, General, in the battle ol 

NoisseviUe, u. 176—178. 

Ladmiraolt, General, at Coarcelles, 

ii. 160. . 

La Fire, cnptore of, ii. 1"8. 
La Marmora, L 156, ii 62. 
LaneensttlEa, battle of, i. lB8,)i^S43. . 


Lasker, Edward, i 247, U. 1 — 13 ; 

00 England, li. 7, 8. 
Lau&ch, defeat of the Hossuini at, 

ii. 247. 
Ledochowaki, Archbishop of Posen, 

i, 252. 
Legeditch, General, ii. Qtt. 
Leopold of Hoheuzotlera. L 172. 
Licblenber;,', ttipture of, ii. 73, 
Liebenaii, victory at, ii. 89. 
Local Government Bill, l 223. 
Louise, Cj^ieea of Prussia, L 3, 6. 
Loyola, i. 211. 
Luthor, i. 313, 329, 330. 
LiiTCDiburg qiie*tii>n, i. 168. 
Liitzelat«ia, capture uf, it. 173. 

MacMahon, ii. 69, 74, 75 ; firat 
nieetinx with Albtrt of Saxony, 
iL 121; necond meeting with Al- 
bert of Saxony, ii. 130 j at Sedan, 
ii. 129. 

Manstein, General, his blunder at 
Kolin, ii. 94—96. 

Manntein. General, ii. 270. 

MHUtcutrel, Ficld-Marxhal, ii. 103— 
18(1 ; commander of the Army of 
the South, ii. 17S ; at Courcelles, 
it. 16(1, 175 ; and Falkenstein, ii. 
173 ; BueceeiU VoRel von F.dcken- 
stein in the command of the Army 
of the Main, ii. 172 ; and the 
Frankforters, iL 174; at Gostein, 
ii. 168 ; invadra Hanover, ii. 171 ; 
&t Langen3;ib!a, ii. 172 ; at Noia- 
serille, ii. irS--178 ; and Prince 
Frederick of Augustenhririt, iL 
ITO ; in Scbleswig, iL 1(1:); and 
Tweat«n, ii. 167 ; (jommander-in- 
Chief of the Germm Army of 
Occupation in France, iL 180. 

MarAitl, capture of, ii. 73. 

Mars-la-Tour, battle of, iL 9S, 287, 

Metancbthon, L 331. 

Melchera, Paulas, Archbishop of 

Cologne, L 267, 232—287. 
Met/, sieiB of, ii. 10,1 ; oipitubUion 

of, iL 101. 
MichMlia, ii. 294. 
Michel, General, iL 218. 
Michelis, Professor, i. 264. 
Miasunfle, ansuccessful attempt upon, 

by the Prussians, in 1864, iL 67. 

Miillendor^ Maixbal, ii. 28. 
Moltke, Fietd-Marnhal, i. 54. 
Money Murshals, The, ii. 277. 
Moutuuban, (Paliluo), ii. 

Miihler, I 193, 208. 
MiinchengrAtz, battle of, ii. 147. , 
Mutiua, General, iL 56, 59. 

NAcnon, battle of, ii. 51, &c 
Nanisi::inowski, Bishop of Agath- 

opoli=i, i. 302— 3it5. 
Nancy and the four lancers, ii. 73. 
Napoleon III. at S.iarbriickeu, it. 86. 
Needle-gun, iu 3i."'. 
Neu Breiaach, capture of, bytheGer-», iL 217. 
Niciiolusof Russia,!. 111. 
NikrtlBburgjprellTninaries of, i. 160. 
NoisaeviUe, b.ittlo ..f, iL 176—178. 
Nuits, battle of, tL 221. 

Obersit;!, General, it. 270. 

iEcumenics! Council, i. 198. 

0;;iion, battle on the, iL 213. 

Uld-Catholic Movement in Ger- 
many, L 3iKi— 3:16 ; Pro:Tramme 
of" "Free Cttholic " radical section, 
L 314—316; of a dvanceil moderate 
section, L 316—320; of D6llinger- 
ian section proper, i. 320 — 326. 

Ollech, General, li. 272. 

Orleans, buttle of, ii. 252, 253 ; 
retaken by the Germans, ii. 103. 

Paris, advance upon, ii 75 ; sor- 

rounded, ii. 77. 
Patriarchal*, German, i. 271. 
Paul III., Pope (Farnese), L 328. 
Pea-saasu{ze. ii. 333, 334. 
Peucker, General, ii. 272. 
Pfordteii, Von der, L 160. 
Philipsiiom, ii. 294. 
Pins IX., Allocation on St. John's 

Day, 1872, i. 276 ; letter of; L 178. 
Podbielski, General, ii. 272. 
Podol, victory at, ii. 89. 
Pontarlier, Ii;;lit at, ii. 179. 
Prague, pe^ico of, L 160. 
Prim, i. 171. 
Princess Royal of England, ii 80 ; 

de-..ent of, ii. 44. 
Pron liiynski. General, ii. 57. 
Protest of sixty-seven Bisliops against 

Vatican decroes, i 2:63. 

QceuK Carola Wasa of Saxony, 

ii. 1S3. 
Qneen Elizabeth of Fnissin, i. 9, 10, 

.13—41, 143, 152, Sftl ; ii. 116. 
Queen Lauiae of Pnusia, i. 3, 6. 

Has, Bishop of Sttashiug, l 217, 

Keinkens, Old-Catholio Bishop, i. 300. 
Kenftle, p:irlsh priest, i. 29B. 
Rheinhaben, Oenenil, ii. 270. 
Eicei, Genera) of order ot the Jeauila, 

L a 15. 
RogniU, battle of, ii. 65. 
RouiJEh Bishops in Gennnny, i. 269. 
Eomish Episcopate in Qermany, i. 

Bomish Episcopate and OId-C»tho1ic 

Movemeot in Germiiny, i. 258 — 

Eoon, Field-Marshal, i. 42—53 ; 

Prime Minister of Prassia, i. 239. 
Roaen, occupation of by the Ger- 

Boamania, Prince Chatlea 0^ i. 137. 

SAAftBuncKES, French attaclt upon, 

Sadowa and Chluia, battle uf, ii. 6S. 

St. Barbe, battle of, ii. ITC— 178. 

Si. Privat, en^iigement at, ii. 127. 

St. Quentin, battle of, ii. 199—201. 

Siu-uit ainiy at Leipzig in 1H13, iL 

Scherr, Archbishop of Munich, i. 
266, 279—232. 

Schleswig-Holatein question, i. 128, 

Schlettstadt, capture of by the Ger- 
mans, ii. 217. 

Schlothcim, General, ii. 270 ; inter- 
view with Moltke, il 129. 

Schmeling, General, ii. 217. 

Schmettuu, attack on French centre 
at Vionville, ii 99, 268, 269. 

School Inspection Bill, I 201, 209. 

Sedan, bHttle of, iL 75. 

Sedlnitiki, Prince,-BiBhop of BreK- 
lau, i. 273. 

S^nestry, Bishop of Ratisbon, L 298. 

Society of Jesns, i. 211. 

Sophia of AuatrJa, ii. 115. 

SpecialAnna and Victualling Depart- 
ments, ii. 318—319. 

Sperling:, General, ii. 270. 

Spichcren, battle of, iL 156—158. 

Stalki, iL 18. 

Stiingl, i. 281. 

Stein on public iiutitutions in Prus- 
sia, i. £03. 

St«inmetz, Field-Motshal, il 151— 
162 ; at Nachod, Skalitz, and 
Schweinschadel, iL 153 ; at Conr- 
celles, ii. 159, 160 ; at Gravelotte, 
ii. 160 ; Governor-General of 
Posen and Silesia, ii. 161. 

Stiehle, General, ii. 270. 

Stosch, General, Chief of Staff to 
Grand Duke of Mecklenburg, ii. 

Straabnrg, capitulation of, ii. 210. 

Strossniayer, Bishop, i. 267. 

Tans, General Von der, ii. 236— 
257 ; victory at Artenay, ii. 252 ; 
at Bazeilles, ii. 250 ; Chief of 
the Ptaff to Prince Charles of 
BBT-aria in 1866, iL 241-249; 
iiiivterly retreat after battle of 
Coulmlers, ii. 254, 255 ; wounded 
at Kissingen, ii. 247 ; in Schleswi,;- 
Holstein, iL 238. 

Tauberbiscbofsheim, fight at, ii 

Thile, ii. 294. 

Tbun, Count, Austrian Ambassador 
at Frankfort, i. 107. 

Tobitschau, fight at, ii. 63. 

Trautenau, bnttle of, i. 62. 

Treaties with Bavaria, Wiirtemberg, 
and Baden, publication of by 
Bismarck, i. 169. 

Tresknw, General, besieges Belfort, 
iL 223. 

Trochu, General, ii. 79, 134. 

Tiimplini;, General, ii. 270. 

" ViB VicTis ! " the, of Donchery, i. 

Vatican Council and Decrees, i. 197. 

Vend6nie, occupation of by the Ger- 
mans, ii. 103. 

Veri^eriuB, Panl, i. 329. 

Villersexel, battle of, ii. 223—234. 

Villiers-sur-Mame, battles of, ii. 132 

Vionville, fight at, ii. 98, 99, 268. 

Vinoy, General, ii. 78. 

Vitry, capture of, ii, 74. 

Vogel Ton Falckenstein (see Falck- 

Voigts-Rhetz, General, ii. 270. i 


Waldeck, iL IG. 

Waldereee, General, ii- 279. 

Wartenberg, General, iL 272. 

Wartenslelien, Geuernl, iL 270. 

WedeU, General, ii 270. 

Wtiaaenburg, battle of, iL 66—69. 

Werder, General, ii. £03—235; in 
the CaucaBUB, ii. 206, 206 ; defence 
of the position before Belfort, iL 
226—233 ; at Kbniggratz in 1660, 
ii 209 ; promotions and transfera, 
ii. 207, 208 ; before Strasburg in 
1870, iL 209, 210; victory at 
ViUereenel, ii. 223, 224. 

Wesaenberg, iL 109. 

William of Baden, Prince, ii. 213, 

William I., Emperor of Oenuanj, i. 

William I., King of Prussia, pro- 
claimed Emperor of German;, L 29. 

Wittich, General, iL 270. 

Wollmann, L 272. 

Worms, Synod of, L 259. 

Wrangel, Field-Marshal, ii. 19--32. 

Wiirlemberg, Augustus, Prince of, ii. 

Zabtrow, General, iL 57. 

Zealot, a Jesnit, and his r.tvings, i. 

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